Category Archives: History

15 Different Types of Incense

You may have often experienced a mystic aroma in high-end stores and restaurants that adds to their ambiance. This aroma is something that you just can’t seem to achieve at home with air fresheners. So, what exactly do these retail stores and restaurants use? Well, it is nothing to hide. They use incense.

What Is Incense?

ncense is a biological material that produces a pleasantly fragrant smoke when burned. Essential oils and plant materials are used in the making of incense. It is used to create an ambiance, produces a pleasant aroma, and is also used in meditation, aromatherapy, and has several other uses as well.

The word incense comes from the Latin word incendere, which means ‘burn.’ The use of incense dates back to ancient Egypt, where priests used it for the fumigation of tombs and funeral ceremonies. Egyptians also used incense to keep demons away and as an offering to their gods during different rituals.

We will be discussing the different types of incenses in the article ahead. Keep reading!

Types of Incenses

Incense is normally of two main types, which are:

▪ Indirect burning incense

▪ Direct burning incense

Indirect burning Incense

Indirect burning incense includes loose resin that requires a separate source of heat constantly to keep the biological material burning. You will find that indirect burning incenses are most commonly used in contemporary settings

Direct Burning Incense

Direct burning incense is lit once and fanned out after a while. It creates a glowing ember that burns the material slowly and releases the fragrant smoke. Direct burning incenses are pressed into a cone, block, or any other shape and are formed around a stick that supports it.

Incenses come in many forms which are:

▪ Sticks

▪ Cones

▪ Coils

▪ Powders

The burning duration is greatly affected by the form of incense used.

Stick Incenses

Incense sticks are a part of the traditions of many countries like China, Japan, Tibet, and India. Each region has its own recipe and crafting method. Stick incenses usually burn for a short time. Longer stick incenses are also available which may burn for longer. The types of incense sticks that you are most likely to encounter are:

1. Stick Incense with Bamboo Core

A stick incense with a bamboo core is the most common type of incense that you will find in any tradition. It includes a central bamboo core with a paste of incense material wrapped around it. The fragrance of the smoke is considered to basically be the fragrance of the core, i.e., bamboo.

2. Cylinder Incense Stick

Cylinder incense sticks do not contain a bamboo core. They are made of one material through and through. They are made directly from the dried paste of the incense material. Some examples of this type of incense are simpoi and dhoop.

3. Joss Sticks

Joss is a term that originated in China. It describes objects that have a religious nature. However, nowadays, joss is used to refer to incense sticks. Joss sticks do not have a single definition. You will find different joss sticks used in different traditions. For example, one tradition may call for an incense stick that has a bamboo core as a joss stick, whereas other traditions may call for a hand-rolled incense stick without a bamboo core as a joss stick. Indian joss sticks contain bamboo in the core, whereas Japanese joss sticks do not have any supporting material in the center.

4. Hand-Dipped Incense Sticks

Hand-dipped incense sticks, as the name indicates, are made using the hand-dipping method. These sticks can be made by dipping either a bamboo incense stick or a masala stick into fragrant oils, which could be synthetic or natural.

5. Dhoop

Dhoop incense sticks are common in India and Tibet. These are solid incense sticks that are available in many sizes. They are malleable and soft and can be broken easily.

6. Agarbatti

The word agarbatti has been derived from two words; agar, which comes from agarwood or aloeswood, and batti, which means stick. Thus, agarbatti is an incense stick that is made with a wooden core. It is one of the most common types of incense that is used in Indian culture.

7. Masala Sticks

Masala sticks come from South India, where many kinds of wood, herbs, flowers, resins, gums, oils, and other ingredients are blended together to form a paste. This paste is then spread onto the surface of a bamboo core and dried.

8. Durbar Sticks

Durbar sticks are quite similar to Masala sticks. However, the blend of materials that are used to make them is fairly different and unknown in the west. Solid and liquid ingredients are used to make the paste, as a result of which, these sticks rarely dry out. The liquid ingredients are mainly perfumes. The aroma of Durbar sticks is sweet and spicy, and they are soft to touch.

9. Champa Incense

Champa incense contains sandalwood and frangipani (plumeria). Champa incense sticks are similar to masala sticks and durbar sticks. However, some unique flowers, like nagkeshar and magnolia are used in their preparation. They also consist of a natural ingredient, Halmaddi, which is only found in India. Champa sticks are so named because their fragrance is similar to that of the Champa flower. Halmaddi is hygroscopic. Because of this characteristic, it can absorb moisture from the atmosphere and can feel wet to the touch.

10. Simpoi Sticks

Simpoi sticks are thicker than other incense sticks. They are a hand-rolled, Tibetan variety of incense sticks.

11. Senko Sticks

Senko can be used to describe any type of incense, either stick or incense blend in Japan. Senko incense sticks do not contain a wooden or a bamboo core. Other names by which Senko sticks are known by include Senkou, Senkoo, and sen-koh.

12. Fluxo Incense

Fluxo incense may not suit well to the western palette, but it is quite popular in India. It contains a complex and rich blend of scent along with a number of additional ingredients. The scent varies with the ingredients used, but typically, the fragrance of Fluxo incense is pungent.

Cone Incenses

Cone incenses are made from a mixture of essential oils and powders. They release a pungent aromatic aroma that enhances the scent of the entire room, which is required during meditation and yoga practice. However, burning an incense cone is not as simple as lighting a candle and letting it burn. There are certain steps that need to be followed when using cone incense.

Cone incense should be kept in a suitable incense burner that can hold the ash when the incense burns.

To make sure that the incense sits evenly on the top of the burner, fill the bottom of the burner with uncooked rice or sand. This will help in improving the airflow and will also help in conducting less heat throughout the base of the burner. The burner should be kept on a nonflammable surface and away from any materials that can catch fire.

Burn the tip of the cone and either blow the flame out or fan it out. You will see a spiral of smoke rising from the tip of the cone, which will indicate that your incense is now burning.

Coil Incenses

As you can assume from the name, coil incenses are coils made from incense material. They are also known as incense spirals. They are considered to be a modified version of stick incenses. Coil incenses are made solely from the incense material. They do not contain a wooden or bamboo core in the center. Instead of shaping the incense material into a stick, the material is shaped to form a spiral.

An incense stick cannot be made too long as it raises the risk of the stick-breaking. The major advantage of shaping the incense material into a coil is that it can be made much longer, which can greatly increase the burning time.

They are much like mosquito coils – you burn incense coils so that fragrant smoke is produced. The coil incense is burnt, and the flame is extinguished after a few seconds, similar to how cone incense is burnt. Coil incenses are available in many sizes and shapes. They come with holders to hold the coil and its ash while it is burning.

Because of the extended burn time of incense coils, the compact design, and the capacity to be hanged from the ceiling, they are often a popular choice for worshippers. They can be seen hanging from the ceiling in many religious ceremonies and spiritual sites.

An incense coil having a diameter of 3 to 4 inches can burn for up to 3 to 24 hours. With an increase of only an inch in diameter, the length is increased so much that the burning duration increases from 3 hours to 24 hours approximately.

Incense coils are a perfect choice if you want to keep the interior smelling fresh and mystic for extended durations.

Powder Incenses

Powder incenses refer to the powdered incense material. They contain incense material only, without any core for support. Powder incense is added to an ignited charcoal disc in a bowl. The powder burns with the ignited charcoal and gives off an aroma that is characteristic of the material being used.

Incense Materials

Now that we have discussed the basic types of incenses, let’s look at the different materials that are used in incenses.

Amber

Amber corresponds to Fire and Air. It is used for truth-seeking and wisdom. The blend of florals, musk, and resins is an excellent incense that is quite common in temples.

Sandalwood

Sandalwood is said to heal and consecrate. It helps in removing negative energy and brings about peace. It helps in the creation of a ritual space.

Frankincense

Frankincense is one of the most popular incense fragrances. They help in setting up a sacred space. The attributes of Frankincense include riches, power, and purification. It also helps in balancing solar energy with healing Myrrh.

Patchouli

Patchouli has an earthy aroma that makes it exceptional as an incense material. Its attributes are attraction, money, and sex.

Cinnamon

Cinnamon incenses are used to bring feelings of personal protection and power. It can inflame passion and counter the effects of spells of love.

Citrus

Lemon incense is used to bring brightness. It produces a burst of good luck and confidence. It is the perfect incense for you when you need extra energy.

Coconut

It is used as a lunar incense. It is associated with the practice of chastity.

Dragon’s Blood

Dragon’s blood is a rare and extremely expensive resin. It is a perfect balance between earthy, sweet, and spicy. It is used to bring about the power to almost any working space.

Evergreen

Evergreen incense smells like the Irish Spring. It is used for cleansing, wisdom, and protection.

Other popular incense materials include the following:

▪ Honey

▪ Jasmine

▪ Lavender

▪ Musk

▪ Nag Champa

▪ Opium

▪ Rain

▪ Rose

▪ Sugar and Spice

▪ Vanilla

▪ Wild Berry

Every incense material has a unique and characteristic fragrance. Different types of incenses promote different effects. With so many types of incenses, you can experiment all you want and settle on the one that delivers the effects that you are looking for. Burning incense is a great way to keep your rooms smelling mystic and warm. If you are a religious person who prefers keeping the ambiance of their worship room temple-like, incenses are what will help you achieve the feel and smell of a temple.

Reference

Buddhism 101: The Short Life, And Tragic Death, Of The Sixth Dalai Lama. Poet & Playboy?

The Sixth Dalai Lama. Courtesy Himalayan Art Resources

The 6th Dalai Lama’s life story is a curiosity to us today. He received ordination as the most powerful lama in Tibet only to turn his back on monastic life. As a young adult he spent evenings in taverns with his friends and enjoyed sexual relations with women. He is sometimes called the “playboy” Dalai Lama.

However, a closer look at His Holiness Tsangyang Gyatso, the 6th Dalai Lama, shows us a young man who was sensitive and intelligent, even if undisciplined. After a childhood locked away in a country monastery with hand-picked tutors, his assertion of independence is understandable. The violent end of his life makes his story a tragedy, not a joke.

Prologue

The story of the 6th Dalai Lama starts with his predecessor, His Holiness Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the 5th Dalai Lama. The “Great Fifth” lived in a time of volatile political upheaval. He persevered through adversity and unified Tibet under his rule as the first of the Dalai Lamas to be political and spiritual leaders of Tibet.

Near the end of his life, the 5th Dalai Lama appointed a young man named Sangye Gyatso as his new Desi, an official who managed most of the Dalai Lama’s political and governing duties. With this appointment the Dalai Lama also announced that he was withdrawing from public life to focus on meditation and writing. Three years later, he died.

Sangye Gyatso and a few co-conspirators kept the 5th Dalai Lama’s death a secret for 15 years. Accounts differ as to whether this deception was at the 5th Dalai Lama’s request or was Sangye Gyatso’s idea. In any event, the deception averted possible power struggles and allowed for a peaceful transition to the rule of the 6th Dalai Lama.

The Choice

The boy identified as the Great Fifth’s rebirth was Sanje Tenzin, born in 1683 to noble family that lived in the border lands near Bhutan. The search for him had been carried out in secret. When his identity was confirmed, the boy and his parents were taken to Nankartse, a scenic area about 100 kilometers from Lhasa. The family spent the next 12 years in seclusion while the boy was tutored by lamas appointed by Sangye Gyatso.

In 1697 the death of the Great Fifth finally was announced, and 14-year-old Sanje Tenzin was brought in great fanfare to Lhasa to be enthroned as His Holiness the 6th Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso, meaning “Ocean of Divine Song.” He moved into the just-completed Potala Palace to begin his new life.

The teenager’s studies continued, but as time passed he showed less and less interest in them. As the day approached for his full monk’s ordination he balked, then renounced his novice ordination. He began to visit taverns at night and was seen staggering drunkenly through the streets of Lhasa with his friends. He dressed in the silk clothes of a nobleman. He kept a tent outside Potala Palace where he would bring young women.

Enemies Near and Far

At this time China was ruled by the Kangxi Emperor, one of the most formidable rulers of China’s long history. Tibet, through its alliance with fierce Mongol warriors, posed a potential military threat to China. To soften this alliance, the Emperor sent word to Tibet’s Mongol allies that Sangye Gyatso’s concealment of the Great Fifth’s death was an act of betrayal. The Desi was trying to rule Tibet himself, the Emperor said.

Indeed, Sangye Gyatso had become accustomed to managing Tibet’s affairs on his own, and he was having a hard time letting go, especially when the Dalai Lama was mostly interested in wine, women and song.

The Great Fifth’s chief military ally had been a Mongol tribal chief named Gushi Khan. Now a grandson of Gushi Khan decided it was time to take affairs in Lhasa in hand and claim his grandfather’s title, king of Tibet. The grandson, Lhasang Khan, eventually gathered an army and took Lhasa by force. Sangye Gyatso went into exile, but Lhasang Khan arranged his assassination, in 1701. Monks sent to warn the former Desi found his decapitated body.

The End

Now Lhasang Khan turned his attention to the dissolute Dalai Lama. In spite of his outrageous behavior he was a charming young man, popular with Tibetans. The would-be king of Tibet began to see the Dalai Lama as a threat to his authority.

Lhasang Khan sent a letter to the Kangxi Emperor asking if the Emperor would support deposing the Dalai Lama. The Emperor instructed the Mongol to bring the young lama to Beijing; then a decision would be made what to do about him.

Then the warlord found Gelugpa lamas willing to sign an agreement that the Dalai Lama was not fulfilling his spiritual responsibilities. Having covered his legal bases, Lhasang Khan had the Dalai Lama seized and taken to an encampment outside Lhasa. Remarkably, monks were able to overwhelm the guards and take the Dalai Lama back to Lhasa, to Drepung Monastery.

Then Lhasang fired cannon at the monastery, and Mongol horsemen broke through defenses and rode into the monastery grounds. The Dalai Lama decided to surrender to Lhasang to avoid further violence. He left the monastery with some devoted friends who insisted on coming with him. Lhasang Khan accepted the Dalai Lama’s surrender and then had his friends slaughtered.

There is no record of exactly what caused the 6th Dalai Lama’s death, only that he died in November 1706 as the traveling party approached China’s central plain. He was 24 years old.

The Poet

Yama, mirror of my karma,
Ruler of the underworld:
Nothing went right in this life;
Please let it go right in the next.

Reference

Gay History: Boy Scouts of America Allows Transgender Children Who Identify As Boys To Enroll

Organisation now bases enrollment in boys-only programs on the gender listed on application to become a scout

Boy Scouts of America says it is allowing transgender children who identify as boys to enroll in its boys-only programs. Photograph: Sipa Press / Rex Features

The Boy Scouts of America now allows transgender children who identify as boys to enroll in its boys-only programs.

The organization said on Monday it had decided to begin basing enrollment in its boys-only programs on the gender a child or parent lists on the application to become a scour, rather than birth certificate.

Rebecca Rausch, a spokeswoman for the organization, said the organization’s leadership had considered a recent case in Secaucus, New Jersey, where an eight-year-old transgender child had been asked to leave his Scout troop after parents and leaders found out he is transgender, but that the change was made because of the national conversation about gender identity.

“For more than 100 years, the Boy Scouts of America, along with schools, youth sports and other youth organizations, have ultimately deferred to the information on an individual’s birth certificate to determine eligibility for our single-gender programs,” the statement said.

“However, that approach is no longer sufficient as communities and state laws are interpreting gender identity differently, and these laws vary widely from state to state.”

Rausch said the enrollment decision went into effect immediately.

“Our organization’s local councils will help find units that can provide for the best interest of the child,” the statement said.

Boy Scouts of America leaders lifted a blanket ban on gay troop leaders and employees in July 2015.

BUT

Transgender boy removed from Boy Scouts troop in New Jersey

Joe Maldonado is at the center of the first known case of a trans child being banned from organization

The Boy Scouts of America recently lifted bans on gay scouts and leaders, which Joe Maldonado’s mother took as a sign that the organization would accept her transgender son. Photograph: Elaine Thompson/AP

Joe Maldonado wanted to join the Boy Scouts because many of his friends were a part of it. The eight-year-old went to school with the boys in the group, hung out with them and played on the basketball team with some of them, said Kristie Maldonado, his mother.

But about a month after joining Pack 87 in Secaucus, New Jersey, Joe was asked to leave because he is transgender, according to Kristie Maldonado. His case is believed to be the first known in which a scout was rejected based on their gender, Justin Wilson, the executive director of Scouts for Equality, told NorthJersey.com.

“Because he wasn’t born a boy, he was no longer able to go back into the Boy Scouts,” Maldonado told the Guardian.

Maldonado said she was unaware of any issues with her son until she received a call from a scouting official, asking whether Joe was born a girl. “At first, well, I didn’t answer him. I just said, you guys didn’t ask for a birth certificate. I said no one had ever seen my child naked,” she said.

The call came as a surprise to Maldonado because Joe was open about his gender identity and had been accepted as a boy at school. The other kids in the troop had never had an issue with him, Maldonado said.

But the official told her that some parents had mentioned Joe’s name had previously been Jodi, and that Joe could no longer be a part of the troop, Maldonado said.

“If they had said right from the beginning, because I know it’s a touchy subject and I know it’s a private organization, I would have said, OK, we can’t join. We can’t do it this year. I would have made an excuse for Joe,” she said, “But you don’t accept a child, then a month later you throw them out.”

The Boy Scouts of America endured years of controversy before ultimately lifting bans on gay scouts and leaders in recent years. Maldonado said she took this as a sign that her son would be allowed to join. “I took it as, OK, if they’re accepted, why not transgender?”

But a spokeswoman, Effie Delimarkos, said in a statement the organization considered transgender children as a separate issue.

“No youth may be removed from any of our programs on the basis of his or her sexual orientation,” she said, but added: “Gender identity isn’t related to sexual orientation.”

The Boy Scouts declined to directly address Joe’s situation or say whether there was a written policy on transgender participants. The statement said Cub Scout programs were for those identified as boys on their birth certificates.

Wilson told NorthJersey.com that the Boy Scouts of America organization was not known to have rejected any scouts due to gender identity prior to Joe’s case. He knew of at least two transgender boys who were Cub Scouts in other states and did not know of any instances in which scouts were asked for birth certificates as a condition of membership.

Eric Chamberlin of the Northern New Jersey Council of Boy Scouts acknowledged having called Maldonado last month, NorthJersey.com reported. He declined further comment and referred questions to the scouts’ national office, saying the issue involved “our membership standards”.

Earlier this year, the Boy Scouts told the Associated Press that it would admit transgender children to its coeducational programs, but not to programs that are for boys only, like the Cub Scouts and Boy Scouts.

By making the family’s story public, Kristie Maldonado is also hoping for change. “The change is I want for them to go not by birth certificate or what they’re born with, but go by their identity. Our definition of identity is how you feel,” Maldonado said. “When they say identity, they’re going by the birth certificate.” She wants transgender kids to be included, “no questions asked”.

The national Girl Scouts organization, which is not affiliated with the Boy Scouts, has accepted transgender members for years.

The Boy Scouts did not respond to questions about whether the group would accept a transgender girl whose birth certificate indicated she was assigned male at birth.

Boy Scouts of America ends ban on gay and lesbian troop leaders

On the heels of gay marriage legalization, the organization’s new policy allows local units to select their leaders to appease both liberal and religious groups

The national governing body of the Boy Scouts of America has ended a blanket ban on gay adult leaders while allowing church-sponsored Scout units to maintain the exclusion because of their faith.

The new policy, aimed at easing a controversy that embroiled the Boy Scouts for years and threatened the organization with lawsuits, takes effect immediately. It was approved on Monday night by the BSA’s 80-member national executive board in a teleconference.

The ban pitted leaders and members of the 105-year-old organization against each other, often fragmenting according to faith. The new policy seeks a compromise between more liberal groups, such as the New York City scouting group, and regions whose groups are run by staunchly conservative faiths, such as the Mormon church.

Under the new policy, local units will be able to select their own leaders according to their own standards, meaning church-run groups can “choose adult leaders whose beliefs are consistent with their own”, according to a statement from organization executives.

“It is not a victory but it certainly is progress,” said Zach Wahls, an Eagle Scout and executive director of Scouts for Equality, told the Guardian earlier on Monday. “I think this is the most progressive resolution we could’ve expected from the Boy Scouts.”

Wahls noted that the organization had banned gay people since 1978, and that its decentralized structure – religious organizations charter about 70% of Boy Scout troops – means some prejudices have deep roots.

“What really has to happen is change in the sponsoring organizations,” he said, adding that his concern was not with specific religious groups but for full inclusion.

“I’m not worried about Mormon units not allowing gay leaders as there aren’t a lot of openly gay Mormons anywhere,” he said. “But discrimination sends a harmful message to gay youths and straight youths, and it has no place in scouting.”

Scouting law says that a boy scout is cheerful, so we’ll be OK

Zach Wahls, Scouts for Equality

On 13 July, the organization’s executive committee, headed by president and former defense secretary Robert Gates, unanimously approved the resolution, saying there had been a “sea change in the law with respect to gay rights”.

“The BSA national policy that prohibits gay adults from serving as leaders is no longer legally defensible,” the organization said in a statement earlier this month. “However, the BSA’s commitment to duty to God and the rights of religious chartered organizations to select their leaders is unwavering.”

The vote took place only a month and a day after the US supreme court legalized same-sex marriage throughout the US, striking down state bans and punctuating the swift progress of gay rights with its 5-4 vote.

The board’s vote also follows only two years after a long and bitter debate at the organization’s 2013 meeting in Texas, where 60% of some 1,400 scout leaders voted to end the ban. The organization said at the time that it had no intentions of revisiting the issue.

But earlier this year the New York City chapter hired a gay camp counsellor, and said it would force the issue in court if necessary to keep the counsellor employed.

The Boy Scouts has about 2.5 million members between the ages of seven and 21, as well as 960,000 volunteers in local units, according to the organization. Membership has steadily declined about 4-6% each year for several years, contributing to the internal crisis over what to do.

John Stemberger, chairman of the breakaway Christian youth outdoor program Trail Life USA, told Reuters on Friday that lifting the ban was an affront to Christian morals and would make it “even more challenging for a church to integrate a [Boy Scouts] unit as part of a church’s ministry offerings”.

But major Catholic and Mormon supporters appeared to approve of the new policy. On its site, the National Catholic Committee on Scouting said that the Boy Scouts did not endorse homosexuality. The committee then wrote: “Any sexual conduct, whether homosexual or heterosexual, by youth of Scouting age is contrary to the virtues of Scouting.”

The Mormon church meanwhile reasserted itself earlier this month, saying in a statement that it has “always had the right to select Scout leaders who adhere to moral and religious principles that are consistent with our doctrines and beliefs”.

References

Gay History: Gay Liberation Front – United Kingdom, Part 2

This is what Britain’s Gay Liberation Front movement looked like in the 1970s

Protests, parades, pamphlets, and policy change

Couple at a Gay Liberation Front gathering. (Hall-Carpenter Archives via London School of Economics Library)

Last month marked the 50th anniversary of the 1967 Sexual Offences Act, a landmark piece of legislation in the United Kingdom that ceased the prosecution of men for homosexual acts. It wasn’t a perfect law by any means — it did not fully decriminalize sexual acts with persons of the same sex — but it was the first legislative step toward equality for LGBTQ people under British law.

Prior to the 1970s, few gay people in Britain were publicly out and even fewer publicly campaigned. Dedicated activists knew that taking to the streets, being visible and not cowed was a key strategy in the pursuit of equal rights. They called for people up and down the country to come out.

Festival of Light, 1970s. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

These days, gay pride marches are among the largest and most joyful gatherings. So, it might be difficult to imagine the extent to which a public showing of support for LGBTQ rights was radical.

Archive photographs, journals, and organizing literature provide testament to early activism in Britain. Recently, such papers and prints in the Hall-Carpenter Archives at the London School of Economics (LSE) were brought together for Glad to be Gay: The Struggle for Legal Equality, an exhibition of ephemera and social movement materials.

We witness the gatherings, think-ins, political actions, and marches. We see the self-made pamphlets, zines, and newsletters that forged solidarity of thought. These objects galvanized citizens who refused to remain silent; they propelled a movement.

Members of the Gay Liberation Front demonstrate in London in 1972. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
Disabled Gays Guide, 1985.
Gay humanist group ephemera
Gay Liberation Front ephemera, 1973. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
GLF party flyer. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
Gay Liberation Front street theatre. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

LSE has an important historical role in the push for LGBTQ rights. The first ever Gay Liberation Front (GLF) meeting in the UK was convened in a basement classroom there. The date was October 13, 1970.

Inspired by the GLF movement in the United States, the UK GLF drew up demands and focused on group activities to root those demands — street theatre, “gay days,” festivals, and sit-ins. At first, it was very informal, but soon the GLF realized the power of collective voice. Its activities led to London’s first Gay Pride March in 1972.

The curator of Glad To Be Gay, Gillian Murphy, explains that until the 1950s homosexuality was a taboo subject. Male homosexuality was illegal and lesbianism wasn’t even recognized as an emotional, sexual, or social reality.

In 1957, UK Parliament published the Wolfenden Report, which recommended that the law should no longer judge nor punish sex conducted in private between consenting same-sex adults. The report didn’t come so much from a position of moral enlightenment, but more a realistic appraisal of privacy, its legal protections, and the impossibility of enforcement. Throughout the 1960s, the Homosexual Law Reform Society and campaigners such as Tony Dyson and Antony Grey pressed politicians to decriminalize homosexuality.

Passage of the 1967 Sexual Offences Act was a huge leap forward, but it also had negative consequences. It formalized the legal age of consent at 21 (it was lowered to 18 in 1994, and to 16 until 2001) and as a result, vast numbers of young gay adults, in their love, remained outside the law. Under the Sexual Offences Act, homosexual acts in the military also remained illegal. Furthermore, the law only applied to England and Wales and homosexual sex remained a crime for millions in Scotland and Northern Ireland until the early 80s.

Lifelong gay rights activist Peter Tatchell said in his book Europe in The Pink (1992) that the 1967 Sexual Offences Act actually facilitated an increase in prosecutions against homosexual men. Tatchell told The Guardian recently that between 1967 and the passage of the 2003 Sexual Offences Act, at least 15,000 men were convicted of same-sex acts, which would never have been prosecuted had the partner been of the other sex.

GLF Street Theatre, Parliament Hill Fields, May Day 1971. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

An early Gay Pride march, London, early 1970s. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

These photographs show the actions behind the LGBTQ community’s call for gay persons to come out. In the second half of the 20th century, gay, lesbian, and queer identified people found strength in numbers. They raised consciousness among the public at large and refused to feel shame any longer. The Gay Liberation Front brought a new energy to gay activism. Newly established grassroots organizations such as the Joint Council for Gay Teenagers, Gay Activists Alliance, and FRIEND (Fellowship for the Relief of the Isolated and Emotionally in Need and Distress) met specific needs of diverse groups within the LGBTQ community.

Looking at these images, reading this history, and tracing the legislative changes (especially the 2003 repeal of the remaining discriminatory laws from 1967), you might be forgiven for thinking the fight has been won. Far from it. The activism of the 1960s and 1970s began a fight which continues today. Transphobia, limited access to medical and mental healthcare, and general homophobic attitudes persist in British society. The fight for equality adopted back then isn’t just a chapter in history; it is also part of a continuum of speaking out, winning freedoms, and promoting love that is ongoing.

Gay Pride march, London, early 1970s. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
Gay Liberation Front diary, 1973. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
Gay Liberation Front diary, 1973. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

Gay march demonstration, early 1970s. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
GLF Gay Day, Holland Park, 1971. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
GLF Gay Day, Holland Park, 1971. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

GLF Gay Day, Holland Park, 1971. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

Gay Liberation Front demands, November 1970. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

Gay Liberation Front demands, February 1971. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

Blackout journal, summer 1986. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

Gay Liberation Front street theatre. |

Gay Christian journal, November 1979. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

GLF dance ticket. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

Production of Come Together magazine in Aubrey Walter’s flat, circa 1972. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

Lesbian and Gay Christian Movement badge.
Lesbian Feminist weekend guide to London. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
Outwrite Women’s Newspaper, May 1988. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
UK Lesbian and Gay Switchboard hotline. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
“We Are Nature’s Children Too.” Marchers and police at a Gay Pride march, London, 1974. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
Festival of Light, 1970s. |
The first Gay Liberation Front dance leaflet, 1970. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
The first National Convention, or “Think-In,” at Leeds University Union connected GLF groups across the country. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)
Older Lesbian Newsletter, 1984.
Outrage magazine, 1983.
Sappho journal. (Hall-Carpenter Archives/LSE Library)

Reference

Gay History: Outcry As Secret Gay Life Of Irish Hero Is ‘Proved’

Roger Casement’s notorious Black Diaries are genuine, claims writer

English Photographer, (19th century). Medium: black and white photograph. Date: 19th Century. Roger Casement (1864-1916) Irish nationalist and revolutionary; Edward James Glave (1863-95) journalist and explorer; William Georges Parminter (d.1894); Herbert Ward (1863-1919) English sculptor; all of them travelled in Africa and especially the Congo and protested about human rights there; social justice; investigating human rights abuses; Provenance: Private Collection.

Since his execution at Pentonville prison, London, 83 years ago next week**, Sir Roger Casement has been at the centre of a historical controversy involving spies, treason and homosexuality.

Now fresh evidence has been unearthed suggesting that Casement’s so-called Black Diaries, detailing the Irish nationalist leader’s promiscuous homosexual affairs, were in fact genuine.

A Belfast-based writer has discovered a new letter, written only days before Casement died on the gallows, which he claims confirms the existence of a mysterious homosexual lover, alluded to in the Black Diaries as Millar.

The revelation is bound to provoke outrage among nationalist historians, who regard the allegations as slurs conjured up by British intelligence during the Irish war of independence.

The Casement controversy remains so powerful that Bertie Ahern, the Irish Prime Minister, ordered an investigation earlier this year into the authenticity of the diaries.

The Millar letter was written by an MI5 agent to the Home Office four days before Casement was hanged for treason. It was uncovered in the Public Record Office at Kew in London earlier this year by Jeff Dudgeon, an Ulster gay activist who sued the British Government in the European Court of Human Rights 20 years ago over discrimination against gays in Northern Ireland.

Dudgeon points out that in the Black Diaries of 1910-11, Casement allegedly makes a number of references to having sex with Millar. On 8 August, for instance, Casement is supposed to have written: ‘Leaving for Belfast. To sleep with Millar. In at once.’ Three days earlier Casement supposedly wrote: ‘Letter from Millar. Good on for Tuesday. Hurrah! Expecting!’ The diary entries also include references to the two men spending the night together on the day the Titanic sunk.

The agent who wrote the Millar memo, Frank Hall, discovered that Millar was Joseph Millar Gordon, a 26-year-old employee of the Belfast Bank in Donegall Square.

Hall tells his boss, Sir Ernley Blackwell, the chief legal adviser to the Home Office, that he was able to track Casement’s lover down via a motorbike which he bought for Millar for £25.

Hall noted that Millar Gordon lived alone with his mother at Carnstroan, a large Victorian house in Myrtlefield Park in south Belfast.

Four days after the memo’s postmark, Casement was hanged for his part in enlisting German military support for the 1916 Easter Rising.

At least five members of the British war Cabinet, including Home Secretary Herbert Samuel, had known Casement personally when he worked for the Foreign Office. Casement had investigated allegations of slavery and human rights abuses in the Congo and Peru on behalf of the British Government.

Dudgeon points out that the memo, which was only made available to the public at the end of 1998, was secret and would not have been used at the time in the propaganda campaign against the Irish republican icon.

‘Why would the British forge an internal MI5 memo? This letter puts flesh on the bones of the Millar referred to in the diaries. Nobody could have invented him, because he is so well documented. He was a living person from Belfast whom I believe definitely had a relationship with Casement,’ he said.

Dudgeon denied that being a gay unionist has coloured his year-long research programme into the Casement diaries. ‘I came to this subject with an open mind. It has to be said that the diaries, as well as being an important part of Irish history, are also a vital part of gay history in the twentieth century. They are the only body of written evidence of intense gay sexual detail from this time.’

However, Angus Mitchell, author of the most recent book on Casement, insists the Black Diaries are forgeries. Mitchell, who published The Amazon Journal of Roger Casement in 1997, said: ‘You should remember that the diaries came out of the Home Office, too. The diaries are forgeries, of that I have no doubt. So what if there really was a Millar? There are hundreds of others referred to in the diaries who Casement describes and who can be traced as well. It proves nothing.’

Eoin Neeson, the author of a recent book on 300 years of republicanism, Birth of a Republic, claims: ‘No one who knew him believed the allegations and [they] are unanimous about his extremely high sense of moral integrity… The virtual impossibility of his practising the gross degeneracies at all, let alone with the frequency alleged, is demonstrable.’

Dudgeon, who is writing a book based on his research, promises to reveal more material which he claims will prove that subsequent Irish governments covered up evidence to support the authenticity of the diaries.

Millar Gordon, the alleged lover, died in Dublin in 1956, three years before the diaries were first published.

Irish Legal Heritage: Hanged by a comma

Irish revolutionary Roger Casement, the ‘father of 20th-century human rights investigations’, was knighted in 1911 for his investigations into human rights abuses in the Congo and Peru while he worked a British Consul.

An Irish Republican, Casement went to Germany in 1914 in an effort to secure German military support for Irish independence. However, suspicious of the Germans toying with him when they provided significantly fewer arms than they promised, Casement left for Ireland in April 1916 with the hope that he could convince Eoin McNeill to call off the Easter Rising.

Casement travelled to Kerry in a German submarine, but had been suffering from malaria that he had contracted while working in the Congo and was too weak to travel further than a few miles from the coast. Three days before the beginning of the Easter Rising, Casement was arrested by the Royal Irish Constabulary at a site now known as Casement’s Fort near Tralee.

Casement was brought to London where he was tried in the High Court for high treason, contrary to the Treason Act 1351. Since the crimes he was accused of had occurred in Germany, much of Casement’s case hinged on statutory interpretation of the Treason Act 1351, which had been translated from Norman French to state: ‘if a do man levy War against our Lord the King in his Realm, or be adherent to the King’s enemies in his Realm, giving to them aid and comfort in the Realm, or elsewhere, and thereof be probably attainted of open deed’.

It was argued that this meant that the offence of treason included levying war against the king in his realm, or supporting the king’s enemies (located in the Realm, or elsewhere) by giving them ‘aid and comfort’ in the realm.

However, the Court omitted the comma after ‘Realm, or elsewhere’, and interpreted the statute to include a third offence of giving aid and comfort to the King’s enemies outside Britain.

As such, Casement was sentenced to death by hanging after being found guilty of ‘High treason by adhering to the King’s enemies elsewhere than in the King’s realm to wit, in the Empire of Germany, contrary to the Treason Act, 1351’.

** The article is from 1999.

Reference

Gay History: Roger Casement: Gay Irish Martyr or Victim of a British Forgery?

A century since he was executed, the story of Irish rebel Sir Roger Casement remains controversial due to the Black Diaries – either a genuine chronicle of his sexual history or a forgery by British officials to discredit him. Two biographers have set out to settle Casement’s case once and for all

Undated library file photo of Sir Roger Casement. Photograph: PA

hanged man was never more popular. One hundred years ago, the British government executed Roger Casement for his participation in a rebellion in Ireland, the Easter Rising of 1916. This year, schoolchildren and tourists by the thousands have visited Casement’s gravesite in Dublin. It is part of a centennial pilgrimage in honour of the Rising, the pivotal event in modern Irish history, marked by headstones, prisons, and rebel redoubts now hard to imagine in jostling traffic. As the First World War raged across Europe, Irish men and women joined the Rising in an attempt to break from a United Kingdom that had bound Ireland for 115 years. In fighting to establish an Irish republic, they battled not just the British government; they also faced the prospect of a civil war against Irish Protestant unionists in the northern province of Ulster who had already spent three years arming themselves against the prospect of political domination by Ireland’s Catholic majority. In the aftermath of the Rising, the British government executed 16 rebel leaders, including Casement. He was hanged and buried on August 3 in the yard of Pentonville Prison in London, England, a land and sea away from his current resting place.

Casement, the last man to be executed, was the first among traitors in the eyes of British officials. Many knew of Casement, an Irish Protestant born outside of Dublin, for his years of work as a Foreign Office official in Africa and South America. This was the Casement who had held a memorial service in a mission church in the Congo Free State in 1901 to commemorate the passing of Queen Victoria; the Casement who was knighted by Victoria’s grandson King George V in 1911 for his humanitarian campaigns on behalf of indigenous peoples on two continents; the Casement who retired from the Foreign Office in 1913 on a comfortable pension that financed his turn to rebellion.

An undated portrait of Sir Roger Casement. Photograph: Courtesy National Library of Ireland

Just over half a century ago, in 1965, Casement’s remains were reinterred, following a state funeral, in Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin. This traitor to the British crown and martyr for the Republic of Ireland remains a memory in motion, stirred by an unforeseen combination of circumstances. The achievement of legal equality for gays in Ireland in 2015, together with the United Kingdom’s recent Brexit vote to leave the European Union, may occasion a new life after death for Casement — as the symbol of a united Ireland. It is the role he had hoped to play even as the trapdoor opened beneath his feet.

Since his adolescence, Casement had been an Irish nationalist of the poetic variety. But his politics hardened after his experiences in the Congo Free State persuaded him that the Congolese and Irish peoples had suffered similar injustices, both having lost their lands to imperial conquest. Like many Irish nationalists, Casement turned to militancy in the years before the First World War, angered both by unionists arming themselves and London’s failure to act upon parliamentary legislation for “home rule,” which would have granted the Irish a measure of sovereign autonomy. In 1914, Casement crossed enemy lines into Germany. There, he attempted to recruit Irish prisoners of war to fight against their former British commanders and sought to secure arms from the Kaiser for a revolution in Ireland itself. Two years later — less than a week before the Rising began — Casement was arrested after coming ashore on the southwest coast of Ireland from a submarine bearing German weapons and ammunition. He was sent to London to be interrogated and tried for treason.

 

As the government reasoned, how could any right-thinking person defend a sodomist?

These days, Casement is chiefly known as the alleged author of the so-called Black Diaries, which are at the center of a long-standing controversy over his sexuality. As Casement awaited execution in London, supporters in the United Kingdom and the United States lobbied the British government to commute his sentence. In response, British officials began to circulate pages from diaries, purportedly written by Casement in 1903, 1910 and 1911, which chronicled in explicit terms his sexual relations with men. Among mundane daily entries are breathless, raunchy notes on Casement’s trysts and, often, the dimensions of his sexual partners. An excerpt from February 28, 1910, Brazil: “Deep screw to hilt … Rua do Hospicio, 3$ only fine room. Shut window. Lovely, young — 18 & glorious. Biggest since Lisbon July 1904 … Perfectly huge.” UK law forbade any sexual relations between men, so, the government reasoned, how could any right-thinking person defend a sodomist? The diaries served to weaken support for clemency for Casement. In the aftermath of his execution a decades-long debate over the authenticity of the diaries ensued.

The leading participants in the debate are two biographers: Jeffrey Dudgeon, who believes that the diaries are genuine and that Casement was a homosexual, and Angus Mitchell, who thinks that the diaries were forged and that Casement’s sexual orientation remains an open question. The stakes of this debate were once greater than they are today. As the debate over the Black Diaries gathered momentum in the 1950s and reached a crisis point in the run-up to the repatriation of Casement’s remains to Ireland in the 1960s, Ireland was both more Catholic in its culture and less assured of its sovereign authority than it is today. The southern 26 counties of Ireland declared themselves the Republic of Ireland in 1949, but the British government continued to treat the Republic as a subordinate member of the Commonwealth, rather than a full-fledged European state, until 1968. In that year, responsibility for British relations with the Republic was assigned to the Western European Department of the newly amalgamated Foreign and Commonwealth Relations Office. Six of the counties of the province of Ulster have remained in the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland, riven by sectarian tension that the Republic and Britain have only ever brought to a stalemate. It is telling that the Irish government has been content to leave the diaries in the British National Archives rather than demand ownership and become accountable for their authenticity.

Casement’s path to political redemption was laid by the Gay Liberation movement. Dudgeon is not just a biographer but a protagonist in one of the movement’s crucial battles. In 1981, he challenged Northern Ireland’s criminalisation of homosexual acts between consenting adult men in a case against the United Kingdom brought before the European Court of Human Rights. The court ruled that the law at issue violated the European Convention of Human Rights, and this decision prompted the British government in 1982 to issue an Order in Council that decriminalised homosexual acts between adult men in Northern Ireland; England, Wales, and Scotland had already passed similar laws. In 1993 the Irish parliament to the south also decriminalised male homosexuality in order to bring the Republic’s law into compliance with the European Convention of Human Rights. And in 2015, the Republic became the first country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage by popular vote. The broader campaign for LGBT rights in Ireland has kept Casement much in the news and proudly represented him as a national son and father.

In their biographies, Dudgeon and Mitchell present two Casements, each with strengths and weaknesses. Dudgeon offers meticulous, well-documented detail, but his book, Roger Casement: The Black Diaries, is for insiders, reading at many points like the notes for a doctoral dissertation, without consistent chronological structure or contextual explanation for those unfamiliar with Irish history in general and Casement in particular. Mitchell likewise offers meticulous documentary evidence in Roger Casement, but within a comparatively fluid and clear narrative history that depends problematically upon his assertion that the British government, from the Cabinet to the National Archive, has pursued an insidious, sweeping policy of individual defamation over the past century.

Were the Black Diaries forged? And if so, was it the work of the British government, seeking to destroy Casement for his betrayal and to deny Ireland a heroic martyr? It must be said that Dudgeon and Mitchell both magnify Casement out of proportion to his significance as a threat to the United Kingdom, a state that was attempting to survive a war on multiple fronts, with flagging morale at home, in 1916. The government had larger fish to fry than this man who never founded or led a political party, never engaged in assassination or led men into combat, and never wrote a popular manifesto or treatise. Moreover, as Dudgeon argues, it would have been a monumental, virtually impossible task in 1916 for officials and civil servants to forge diaries so comprehensive in their account of long-past events — when Casement was not under suspicion — that they could convince even Casement’s associates, who found themselves and their own interactions with Casement mentioned in the text. In a fascinating turn, Dudgeon offers the most successful refutation of forgery to date by systematically verifying the diaries’ contents, relentlessly revealing and cross-referencing new sources to pull together loose ends and flesh out identities from cryptic references and last names, such as that of Casement’s alleged boyfriend: “Millar.” Against the historical backdrop of a government marshalling limited resources in wartime, Dudgeon effectively charges that a forgery so verifiably true to life could not have been a forgery. He is probably correct.

Yet to travel further down this historical rabbit hole risks missing what is most significant about Casement at present: his potential reinvention as a symbol of Irish unity in the future. Casement has been resuscitated by an extraordinary combination of developments in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, not just the relative toleration of homosexuality, but the lurch toward Brexit in a popular referendum that found 52% of UK voters in favour and 48% opposed. The decisive support for Brexit was located in England and Wales, while both Scotland and Northern Ireland voted to remain in the EU, the latter by 55.8% to 44.2%. The Republic of Ireland and the UK have long agreed that the political division of Ireland will continue until the majority of Northern Ireland’s citizens vote to sanction secession. Even as Northern Ireland has moved steadily toward a Catholic majority (most of whom support secession), there is still a sizeable minority of Catholics who prefer continued union with Britain in the name of economic and political stability. After the Brexit vote, the disparate communities of Northern Ireland — Protestants and Catholics of all political stripes — may find new common ground in, of all places, Europe. Northern Ireland, like the Republic, benefits substantially from its relationship with the EU, and nationalists and unionists alike are worried about the loss of EU subsidies and markets.

Irish President Eamon de Valera speaking at the funeral of Irish nationalist Roger Casement at Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin, 2nd March 1965. Photograph: Central Press/Getty Images

In the days preceding his execution, Casement asked his family to bury his body near the home of relatives in County Antrim, in what is now Northern Ireland. This was the family that had taken young Roger in after an itinerant childhood and the deaths of his parents. “Take my body back with you and let it lie in the old churchyard in Murlough Bay,” he reportedly stated. Casement’s reinternment at Glasnevin Cemetery was, in fact, a compromise. In 1965 neither the Irish nor the UK governments wished to antagonise Ulster unionists with the burial of a republican martyr in their midst. Among the many tributes laid at Casement’s grave following his burial in Glasnevin was a sod of turf from the high headland over Murlough Bay.

The transfer of Casement’s remains from Pentonville to Glasnevin was conceived by the Irish and UK governments as a symbolic gesture of goodwill that would set the political stage for the Anglo-Irish Free Trade Agreement of 1965. The governments turned to each other for economic support because France had frustrated their attempts to gain entrance into the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor organisation of the EU. When both countries joined the EEC in 1973, this trade agreement lapsed. Once more, then, with Brexit, Casement’s bones have been stirred by Anglo-Irish relations with Europe. In Ireland, the effects are likely to be much different this time around. In representing Casement as a man of contradictions, biographers have assessed him in the terms of conflicts in Irish society that persisted long after his death: the sectarian divide between Protestants and Catholics, the troubles between Ireland and Britain, and the discrimination against male homosexuals enforced by religion and law. As these conflicts dissipate, Casement will be recast in a new light. The portrait of a man of contradictions will give way to a composite picture in which the majority of the people of Ireland may see themselves. Should Ireland reunite, whether in the aftermath of Brexit or in a more distant time, the moment of reconciliation, of acceptance and forgiveness, may well occur over a grave at Murlough Bay.

Reference

Gay History: Timeline Of An Acronym – LGBT

The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rights movement and an icon of LGBT culture, is adorned with flags depicting the colors of the rainbow.[1][2][3]
LGBT (or GLBT) is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. In use since the 1990s, the term is an adaptation of the initialism LGB, which was used to replace the term gay in reference to the LGBT community beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s.[4] Activists believed that the term gay community did not accurately represent all those to whom it referred.

The initialism has become adopted into the mainstream as an umbrella term for use when labeling topics pertaining to sexuality and gender identity. For example, the LGBT Movement Advancement Project termed community centres, which have services specific to those members of the LGBT community, as “LGBT community centers”, in a comprehensive studies of such centres around the United States.[5]

The initialism LGBT is intended to emphasize a diversity of sexuality and gender identity-based cultures. It may be used to refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual or non-cisgender, instead of exclusively to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.[6] To recognize this inclusion, a popular variant adds the letter Q for those who identify as queer or are questioning their sexual identity; LGBTQ has been recorded since 1996.[7][8] Those who add intersex people to LGBT groups or organizing use an extended initialism LGBTI.[9][10] The two acronyms are sometimes combined to form the terms LGBTIQ [11] or LGBT+ to encompass spectrums of sexuality and gender.[12] Other, less common variants also exist, motivated by a desire for inclusivity, including those over twice as long which have prompted criticism.[13]

A six-band rainbow flag representing LGBT

History of the term

The first widely used term, homosexual, now carries negative connotations.[15] It was replaced by  homophile in the 1950s and 1960s,[16][dubious ] and subsequently gayin the 1970s; the latter term was adopted first by the homosexual community.[17] Lars Ullerstam [sv] promoted use of the term sexual minority in the 1960s, as an analogy to the term ethnic minority for non-whites.[18]

As lesbians forged more public identities, the phrase “gay and lesbian” became more common.[19] A dispute as to whether the primary focus of their political aims should be feminism or gay rights led to the dissolution of some lesbian organizations, including the Daughters of Bilitis, which disbanded in 1970 following disputes over which goal should take precedence.[20] As equality was a priority for lesbian feminists, disparity of roles between men and women or butch and femme were viewed as patriarchal. Lesbian feminists eschewed gender role play that had been pervasive in bars, as well as the perceived chauvinism of gay men; many lesbian feminists refused to work with gay men, or take up their causes.[21]

Lesbians who held the essentialist view, that they had been born homosexual and used the descriptor “lesbian” to define sexual attraction, often considered the separatist opinions of lesbian-feminists to be detrimental to the cause of gay rights.[22] Bisexual and transgender people also sought recognition as legitimate categories within the larger minority community.[19]

After the elation of change following group action in the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City, in the late 1970s and the early 1980s, some gays and lesbians became less accepting of bisexual or transgender people.[23][24] Critics[Like whom?] said that transgender people were acting out stereotypes and bisexuals were simply gay men or lesbian women who were afraid to come out and be honest about their identity.[23] Each community has struggled to develop its own identity including whether, and how, to align with other gender and sexuality-based communities, at times excluding other subgroups; these conflicts continue to this day.[24] LGBTQ activists and artists have created posters to raise consciousness about the issue since the movement began.[25]

From about 1988, activists began to use the initialism LGBT in the United States.[26] Not until the 1990s within the movement did gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people gain equal respect.[24] This spurred some organizations to adopt new names, as the GLBT Historical Society did in 1999. Although the LGBT community has seen much controversy regarding universal acceptance of different member groups (bisexual and transgender individuals, in particular, have sometimes been marginalized by the larger LGBT community), the term LGBT has been a positive symbol of inclusion.[6][24]

Despite the fact that LGBT does not nominally encompass all individuals in smaller communities (see Variants below), the term is generally accepted to include those not specifically identified in the four-letter initialism.[6][24] Overall, the use of the term LGBT has, over time, largely aided in bringing otherwise marginalized individuals into the general community.[6][24] Transgender actress Candis Cayne in 2009 described the LGBT community “the last great minority”, noting that “We can still be harassed openly” and be “called out on television”.[27]

In response to years of lobbying from users and LGBT groups to eliminate discrimination, the online social networking service Facebook, in February 2014, widened its choice of gender variants for users.[relevant? ][28][29][30]

In 2016, GLAAD‘s Media Reference Guide states that LGBTQ is the preferred initialism, being more inclusive of younger members of the communities who embrace queer as a self-descriptor.[31] However, some people consider queer to be a derogatory term originating in hate speech and reject it, especially among older members of the community.[32]

LGBT publications, pride parades, and related events, such as this stage at Bologna Pride 2008 in Italy, increasingly drop the LGBT initialism instead of regularly adding new letters, and dealing with issues of placement of those letters within the new title.[14]

Variants

Many variants exist including variations that change the order of the letters; LGBT or GLBTare the most common terms.[24] Although identical in meaning, LGBT may have a more feminist connotation than GLBT as it places the “L” (for “lesbian”) first.[24] LGBT may also include additional Qs for “queer” or “questioning” (sometimes abbreviated with a question mark and sometimes used to mean anybody not literally L, G, B or T) producing the variants LGBTQ and LGBTQQ.[34][35][36] In the United Kingdom, it is sometimes stylized as LGB&T,[37][38] whilst the Green Party of England and Wales uses the term LGBTIQ in its manifesto and official publications.[39][40][41]

The order of the letters has not been standardized; in addition to the variations between the positions of the initial “L” or “G”, the mentioned, less common letters, if used, may appear in almost any order.[24] Longer initialisms based on LGBT are sometimes referred to as “alphabet soup”.[42][43] Variant terms do not typically represent political differences within the community, but arise simply from the preferences of individuals and groups.[44]

The terms pansexual, omnisexual, fluid and queer-identified are regarded as falling under the umbrella term bisexual (and therefore are considered a part of the bisexual community).

Some use LGBT+ to mean “LGBT and related communities”.[12] LGBTQIA is sometimes used and adds “queer, intersex, and asexual” to the basic term.[45] Other variants may have a “U” for “unsure”; a “C” for “curious”; another “T” for “transvestite“; a “TS”, or “2” for “two-spirit” persons; or an “SA” for “straight allies“.[46][47][48][49][50] However, the inclusion of straight allies in the LGBT acronym has proven controversial as many straight allies have been accused of using LGBT advocacy to gain popularity and status in recent years,[51] and various LGBT activists have criticised the heteronormative worldview of certain straight allies.[52] Some may also add a “P” for “polyamorous“, an “H” for “HIV-affected“, or an “O” for “other”.[24][53] Furthermore, the initialism LGBTIH has seen use in Indiato encompass the hijra third gender identity and the related subculture.[54][55]

The initialism LGBTTQQIAAP (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, queer, questioning, intersex, asexual, ally, pansexual) has also resulted, although such initialisms are sometimes criticized for being confusing and leaving some people out, as well as issues of placement of the letters within the new title.[42] However, adding the term “allies” to the initialism has sparked controversy,[56] with some seeing the inclusion of “ally” in place of “asexual” as a form of asexual erasure.[57] There is also the acronym QUILTBAG (queer and questioning, intersex, lesbian, transgender and two-spirit, bisexual, asexual and ally, and gay and genderqueer).[58]

Similarly LGBTIQA+ stands for “lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer/questioning, asexual and many other terms (such as non-binary and pansexual)”.[59]

In Canada, the community is sometimes identified as LGBTQ2 (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and Two Spirit).[60]Depending on the which organization is using the acronym the choice of acronym changes. Businesses and the CBC often simply employ LGBT as a proxy for any longer acronym, private activist groups often employ LGBTQ+,[61] whereas public health providers favour the more inclusive LGBT2Q+ to accommodate twin spirited indigenous peoples.[62] For a time the Pride Toronto organization used the much lengthier acronym LGBTTIQQ2SA, but appears to have dropped this in favour of simpler wording.[63]

Transgender inclusion

The term trans* has been adopted by some groups as a more inclusive alternative to “transgender”, where trans (without the asterisk) has been used to describe trans men and trans women, while trans* covers all non-cisgender (genderqueer) identities, including transgender, transsexual, transvestite, genderqueer, genderfluid, non-binary, genderfuck, genderless, agender, non-gendered, third gender, two-spirit, bigender, and trans man and trans woman.[64][65] Likewise, the term transsexual commonly falls under the umbrella term transgender, but some transsexual people object to this.[24]

When not inclusive of transgender people, the shorter term LGB is used instead of LGBT.[24][66]

Intersex inclusion

The relationship of intersex to lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans, and queer communities is complex,[67] but intersex people are often added to the LGBT category to create an LGBTI community. Some intersex people prefer the initialism LGBTI, while others would rather that they not be included as part of the term.[10][68] LGBTI is used in all parts of “The Activist’s Guide” of the Yogyakarta Principles in Action.[69] Emi Koyama describes how inclusion of intersex in LGBTI can fail to address intersex-specific human rights issues, including creating false impressions “that intersex people’s rights are protected” by laws protecting LGBT people, and failing to acknowledge that many intersex people are not LGBT.[70] Organisation Intersex International Australia states that some intersex individuals are same sex attracted, and some are heterosexual, but “LGBTI activism has fought for the rights of people who fall outside of expected binary sex and gender norms”.[71][72] Julius Kaggwa of SIPD Uganda has written that, while the gay community “offers us a place of relative safety, it is also oblivious to our specific needs”.[73]

Numerous studies have shown higher rates of same sex attraction in intersex people,[74][75] with a recent Australian study of people born with atypical sex characteristics finding that 52% of respondents were non-heterosexual,[76][77] thus research on intersex subjects has been used to explore means of preventing homosexuality.[74][75] As an experience of being born with sex characteristics that do not fit social norms,[78] intersex can be distinguished from transgender,[79][80][81] while some intersex people are both intersex and transgender.[82]

2010 pride parade in Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires, which uses the LGBTIQ initialism.[33]

Criticism of the term

The initialisms LGBT or GLBT are not agreed to by everyone that they encompass.[84] For example, some argue that transgender and transsexual causes are not the same as that of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people.[85] This argument centers on the idea that being transgender or transsexual have to do more with gender identity, or a person’s understanding of being or not being a man or a woman irrespective of their sexual orientation.[24] LGB issues can be seen as a matter of sexual orientation or attraction.[24]These distinctions have been made in the context of political action in which LGB goals, such as same-sex marriage legislation and human rights work (which may not include transgender and intersex people), may be perceived to differ from transgender and transsexual goals.[24]

A belief in “lesbian & gay separatism” (not to be confused with the related “lesbian separatism“), holds that lesbians and gay men form (or should form) a community distinct and separate from other groups normally included in the LGBTQ sphere.[86] While not always appearing of sufficient number or organization to be called a movement, separatists are a significant, vocal, and active element within many parts of the LGBT community.[87][86][88] In some cases separatists will deny the existence or right to equality of bisexual orientations and of transsexuality,[87] sometimes leading public biphobia and transphobia.[87][86] In contrasts to separatists, Peter Tatchell of the LGBT human rights group OutRage! argues that to separate the transgender movement from the LGB would be “political madness”, stating that: 

Queers are, like transgender people, gender deviant. We don’t conform to traditional heterosexist assumptions of male and female behaviour, in that we have sexual and emotional relationships with the same sex. We should celebrate our discordance with mainstream straight norms.[…] [89]

The portrayal of an all-encompassing “LGBT community” or “LGB community” is also disliked by some lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.[90][91] Some do not subscribe to or approve of the political and social solidarity, and visibility and human rights campaigning that normally goes with it including gay pride marches and events.[90][91] Some of them believe that grouping together people with non-heterosexual orientations perpetuates the myth that being gay/lesbian/bi/asexual/pansexual/etc. makes a person deficiently different from other people.[90] These people are often less visible compared to more mainstream gay or LGBT activists.[90][91] Since this faction is difficult to distinguish from the heterosexual majority, it is common for people to assume all LGBT people support LGBT liberation and the visibility of LGBT people in society, including the right to live one’s life in a different way from the majority.[90][91][92] In the 1996 book Anti-Gay, a collection of essays edited by Mark Simpson, the concept of a ‘one-size-fits-all’ identity based on LGBT stereotypes is criticized for suppressing the individuality of LGBT people.[93]

Writing in the BBC News Magazine in 2014, Julie Bindel questions whether the various gender groupings now, “bracketed together” … “share the same issues, values and goals?” Bindel refers to a number of possible new initialisms for differing combinations and concludes that it may be time for the alliances to be reformed or finally go “our separate ways”. In 2015, the slogan “Drop the T” was coined to encourage LGBT organizations to stop support of transgender people; while receiving some support from feminists as well as transgender individuals, the campaign has been widely condemned by many LGBT groups as transphobic.

Alternative terms

Many people have looked for a generic term to replace the numerous existing initialisms.[87] Words such as queer (an umbrella term for sexual and gender minorities that are not heterosexual, or gender-binary) and rainbow have been tried, but most have not been widely adopted.[87][102] Queer has many negative connotations to older people who remember the word as a taunt and insult and such (negative) usage of the term continues.[87][102] Many younger people also understand queer to be more politically charged than LGBT.[102][103] “Rainbow” has connotations that recall hippies, New Age movements, and groups such as the Rainbow Family or Jesse Jackson‘s Rainbow/PUSH Coalition. SGL (“same gender loving“) is sometimes favored among gay male African Americans as a way of distinguishing themselves from what they regard as white-dominated LGBT communities.[104]

Some people advocate the term “minority sexual and gender identities” (MSGI, coined in 2000), or gender and sexual/sexuality minorities (GSM), so as to explicitly include all people who are not cisgender and heterosexual; or gender, sexual, and romantic minorities (GSRM), which is more explicitly inclusive of minority romantic orientations and polyamory; but those have not been widely adopted either.[105][106][107][108][109] Other rare umbrella terms are Gender and Sexual Diversities (GSD),[110] MOGII (Marginalized Orientations, Gender Identities, and Intersex) and MOGAI (Marginalized Orientations, Gender Alignments and Intersex).[111][112]

The National Institutes of Health have framed LGBT, others “whose sexual orientation and/or gender identity varies, those who may not self-identify as LGBT” and also intersex populations (as persons with disorders of sex development) as “sexual and gender minority” (SGM) populations. This has led to the development of an NIH SGM Health Research Strategic Plan.[113] The Williams Institute has used the same term in a report on an international sustainable development goals, but excluding intersex populations.[114]

In public health settings, MSM (“men who have sex with men“) is clinically used to describe men who have sex with other men without referring to their sexual orientation, with WSW (“women who have sex with women“) also used as an analogous term.[115][116]

References

     Julia Goicichea (August 16, 2017). “Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers”. The Culture Trip. Retrieved February 2, 2019.

  1. ^ Eli Rosenberg (June 24, 2016). “Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement”. The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  2. ^ “Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562”. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  3. ^ Acronyms, Initialisms & Abbreviations Dictionary, Volume 1, Part 1. Gale Research Co., 1985,  ISBN 978-0-8103-0683-7. Factsheet five, Issues 32–36, Mike Gunderloy, 1989
  4. ^ Centerlink. “2008 Community Center Survey Report” (PDF). LGBT Movement Advancement Project. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
  5. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Shankle, Michael D. (2006). The Handbook of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Public Health: A Practitioner’s Guide To Service. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-496-8.
  6. ^ The Santa Cruz County in-queery, Volume 9, Santa Cruz Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgendered Community Center, 1996. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 2011-10-23. page 690
  7. ^ “Civilities, What does the acronym LGBTQ stand for?”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  8. ^ William L. Maurice, Marjorie A. Bowman, Sexual medicine in primary care, Mosby Year Book, 1999, ISBN 978-0-8151-2797-0
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b Aragon, Angela Pattatuchi (2006). Challenging Lesbian Norms: Intersex, Transgender, Intersectional, and Queer Perspectives. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-645-0. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
  10. ^ Siddharta, Amanda (April 28, 2019). “Trans Women March for Their Rights in Conservative Indonesia”. VOA. Retrieved April 28,2019.
  11. ^ Jump up to: a b Vikhrov, Natalie (April 26, 2019). “Armenia’s LGBT+ community still waits for change one year after revolution”. Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  12. ^ Parent, Mike C.; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie (June 2013). “Approaches to Research on Intersectionality: Perspectives on Gender, LGBT, and Racial/Ethnic Identities”. Sex Roles. 68 (11–12): 639–645. doi:10.1007/s11199-013-0283-2.
  13. ^ Cahill, Sean, and Bryan Kim-Butler. “Policy priorities for the LGBT community: Pride Survey 2006.” New York, NY: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (2006).
  14. ^ Media Reference Guide (citing AP, Washington Post style guides), GLAAD. Retrieved 23 Dec 2019.
  15. ^ Minton, Henry (2002). Departing from Deviance. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-53043-7. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  16. ^ Ross, E. Wayne (2006). The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6909-5.
  17. ^ Ullerstam, Lars (1967). The Erotic Minorities: A Swedish View. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  18. ^ Jump up to: a b Swain, Keith W. (21 June 2007). “Gay Pride Needs New Direction”. Denver Post. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
  19. ^ Esterberg, Kristen (1994). “From Accommodation to Liberation: A Social Movement Analysis of Lesbians in the Homophile Movement”. Gender and Society. 8 (3): 424–443. doi:10.1177/089124394008003008.
  20. ^ Faderman, Lillian (1991). Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth Century America, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-017122-3, p. 210–211.
  21. ^ Faderman (1991), p. 217–218.
  22. ^ Jump up to: a b Leli, Ubaldo; Drescher, Jack (2005). Transgender Subjectivities: A Clinician’s Guide. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-0-7890-2576-0.
  23. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Alexander, Jonathan; Yescavage, Karen (2004). Bisexuality and Transgenderism: InterSEXions of The Others. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-287-2.
  24. ^ “Out of the Closet and Into the Streets”. Center for the Study of Political Graphics. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  25. ^ Research, policy and practice: Annual meeting, American Educational Research Association Verlag AERA, 1988.
  26. ^ “I Advocate…”. The Advocate. Issue #1024. March 2009. p. 80.
  27. ^ “Facebook expands gender options: transgender activists hail ‘big advance. The Guardian. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 21 May2014.
  28. ^ Dewey, Caitlin (14 February 2014). “Confused by Facebook’s new gender options? Here’s what they mean”. Washington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  29. ^ Nicole Morley (26 June 2015). “Facebook celebrates LGBT Pride with rainbow profile picture function”. Metro.
  30. ^ Ring, Trudy (2016-10-26). “Expanding the Acronym: GLAAD Adds the Q to LGBT”. Advocate. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  31. ^ Nadal, Kevin (15 April 2017). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. p. 1384. ISBN 978-1-4833-8427-6. OCLC 994139871. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  32. ^ “Marcha del Orgullo LGBTIQ” (in Spanish). Comisión Organizadora de la Marcha (C.O.M.O). Retrieved December 2,2016.
  33. ^ Bloodsworth-Lugo, Mary K. (2007). In-Between Bodies: Sexual Difference, Race, and Sexuality. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7221-7.
  34. ^ Alder, Christine; Worrall, Anne (2004). Girls’ Violence: Myths and Realities. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6110-5.
  35. ^ Cherland, Meredith Rogers; Harper, Helen J. (2007). Advocacy Research in Literacy Education: Seeking Higher Ground. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-8058-5056-7.
  36. ^ “Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender couples urged to research honeymoon destinations”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  37. ^ “The National LGB&T Partnership”. The National LGB&T Partnership. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  38. ^ “Green Party LGBT Group Website”. Lgbtiq-greens.greenparty.org.uk. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  39. ^ “EQUALITY FOR ALL” (PDF). Green Party of England and Wales. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  40. ^ Duffy, Nick (1 May 2015). “Green Party wants every teacher to be trained to teach LGBTIQ issues”. PinkNews. Retrieved 3 May2015.
  41. ^ Jump up to: a b “LGBTQQIAAP – ‘Alphabet Soup 101. PugetSoundOff.org. Archived from the original on October 2014. Retrieved 6 October2014.
  42. ^ DeMarco, Linda; Bruni, Sylvain (18 July 2012) [1st pub. 18 May 2012]. “No More Alphabet Soup”. The Huffington Post. 1527958. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015.
  43. ^ Brown, Catrina; Augusta-Scott, Tod (2006). Narrative Therapy: Making Meaning, Making Lives. Sage Publications Inc. ISBN 978-1-4129-0988-4.
  44. ^ “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, Asexual Resource Center”. University of California, Davis. September 21, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
  45. ^ Lebaron, Sarah; Pecsenye, Jessica; Roland, Becerra; Skindzier, Jon (2005). Oberlin College: Oberlin, Ohio. College Prowler, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59658-092-3.
  46. ^ Chen, Edith Wen-Chu; Omatsu, Glenn (2006). Teaching about Asian Pacific Americans: Effective Activities, Strategies, and Assignments for Classrooms and Communities (Critical Perspectives on Asian Pacific Americans). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-5338-5.
  47. ^ Babb, Florence E. (2001). After Revolution: Mapping Gender and Cultural Politics in Neoliberal Nicaragua. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-70900-3.
  48. ^ Padilla, Yolanda C. (2003). Gay and Lesbian Rights Organizing: Community-based Strategies. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-275-9.
  49. ^ Swigonski, Mary E.; Mama, Robin S.; Ward, Kelly; Shepard, Matthew (2001). From Hate Crimes to Human Rights: A Tribute to Matthew Shepard. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-257-5.
  50. ^ Becker, Ron (2006). “Gay-Themed Television and the Slumpy Class: The Affordable, Multicultural Politics of the Gay Nineties”. Television & New Media. 7 (2): 184–215. doi:10.1177/1527476403255830. ISSN 1527-4764.
  51. ^ DeTurk, Sara (2011). “Allies in Action: The Communicative Experiences of People Who Challenge Social Injustice on Behalf of Others”. Communication Quarterly. 59 (5): 569–590. doi:10.1080/01463373.2011.614209. ISSN 0146-3373.
  52. ^ O’Rourke, P. J. (2001). Peace Kills: America’s Fun New Imperialism. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4198-9.
  53. ^ Gurjar, Kaumudi. “Maiden stage act by city’s LGBT face gets censor’s chop”. punemirror.in. Pune Mirror. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  54. ^ McCusker, Ros. “Gay Leeds — Your comprehensive guide to all things gay in Leeds”. gayleeds.com. Archived from the originalon 9 January 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  55. ^ Kelly, Morgan. “Adding ‘allies’ to LGBT acronym sparks controversy”. iowastatedaily.com. Iowa State Daily. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  56. ^ Richard, Katherine. “Column: “A” stands for asexuals and not allies”. loyolamaroon.com. The Maroon. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2014. That “A” is not for allies[,] [t]hat “A” is for asexuals. […] Much like bisexuality, asexuality suffers from erasure.
  57. ^ “Reaching into the QUILTBAG: The Evolving World of Queer Speculative Fiction”. Apex Magazine. 2012-03-06. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  58. ^ University, La Trobe. “What does LGBTIQA+ mean”. http://www.latrobe.edu.au. Retrieved
  1. Julia Goicichea (August 16, 2017). “Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers”. The Culture Trip. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
    ^ Eli Rosenberg (June 24, 2016). “Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement”. The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  • ^ “Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562”. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  • ^ Acronyms, Initialisms & Abbreviations Dictionary, Volume 1, Part 1. Gale Research Co., 1985,  ISBN 978-0-8103-0683-7. Factsheet five, Issues 32–36, Mike Gunderloy, 1989
  • ^ Centerlink. “2008 Community Center Survey Report” (PDF). LGBT Movement Advancement Project. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b c d Shankle, Michael D. (2006). The Handbook of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Public Health: A Practitioner’s Guide To Service. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-496-8.
  • ^ The Santa Cruz County in-queery, Volume 9, Santa Cruz Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgendered Community Center, 1996. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 2011-10-23. page 690
  • ^ “Civilities, What does the acronym LGBTQ stand for?”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  • ^ William L. Maurice, Marjorie A. Bowman, Sexual medicine in primary care, Mosby Year Book, 1999, ISBN 978-0-8151-2797-0
  • ^ Jump up to: a b Aragon, Angela Pattatuchi (2006). Challenging Lesbian Norms: Intersex, Transgender, Intersectional, and Queer Perspectives. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-645-0. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
  • ^ Siddharta, Amanda (April 28, 2019). “Trans Women March for Their Rights in Conservative Indonesia”. VOA. Retrieved April 28,2019.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b Vikhrov, Natalie (April 26, 2019). “Armenia’s LGBT+ community still waits for change one year after revolution”. Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  • ^ Parent, Mike C.; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie (June 2013). “Approaches to Research on Intersectionality: Perspectives on Gender, LGBT, and Racial/Ethnic Identities”. Sex Roles. 68 (11–12): 639–645. doi:10.1007/s11199-013-0283-2.
  • ^ Cahill, Sean, and Bryan Kim-Butler. “Policy priorities for the LGBT community: Pride Survey 2006.” New York, NY: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (2006).
  • ^ Media Reference Guide (citing AP, Washington Post style guides), GLAAD. Retrieved 23 Dec 2019.
  • ^ Minton, Henry (2002). Departing from Deviance. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-53043-7. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  • ^ Ross, E. Wayne (2006). The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6909-5.
  • ^ Ullerstam, Lars (1967). The Erotic Minorities: A Swedish View. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b Swain, Keith W. (21 June 2007). “Gay Pride Needs New Direction”. Denver Post. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
  • ^ Esterberg, Kristen (1994). “From Accommodation to Liberation: A Social Movement Analysis of Lesbians in the Homophile Movement”. Gender and Society. 8 (3): 424–443. doi:10.1177/089124394008003008.
  • ^ Faderman, Lillian (1991). Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth Century America, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-017122-3, p. 210–211.
  • ^ Faderman (1991), p. 217–218.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b Leli, Ubaldo; Drescher, Jack (2005). Transgender Subjectivities: A Clinician’s Guide. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-0-7890-2576-0.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Alexander, Jonathan; Yescavage, Karen (2004). Bisexuality and Transgenderism: InterSEXions of The Others. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-287-2.
  • ^ “Out of the Closet and Into the Streets”. Center for the Study of Political Graphics. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  • ^ Research, policy and practice: Annual meeting, American Educational Research Association Verlag AERA, 1988.
  • ^ “I Advocate…”. The Advocate. Issue #1024. March 2009. p. 80.
  • ^ “Facebook expands gender options: transgender activists hail ‘big advance. The Guardian. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 21 May2014.
  • ^ Dewey, Caitlin (14 February 2014). “Confused by Facebook’s new gender options? Here’s what they mean”. Washington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  • ^ Nicole Morley (26 June 2015). “Facebook celebrates LGBT Pride with rainbow profile picture function”. Metro.
  • ^ Ring, Trudy (2016-10-26). “Expanding the Acronym: GLAAD Adds the Q to LGBT”. Advocate. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  • ^ Nadal, Kevin (15 April 2017). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. p. 1384. ISBN 978-1-4833-8427-6. OCLC 994139871. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  • ^ “Marcha del Orgullo LGBTIQ” (in Spanish). Comisión Organizadora de la Marcha (C.O.M.O). Retrieved December 2,2016.
  • ^ Bloodsworth-Lugo, Mary K. (2007). In-Between Bodies: Sexual Difference, Race, and Sexuality. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7221-7.
  • ^ Alder, Christine; Worrall, Anne (2004). Girls’ Violence: Myths and Realities. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6110-5.
  • ^ Cherland, Meredith Rogers; Harper, Helen J. (2007). Advocacy Research in Literacy Education: Seeking Higher Ground. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-8058-5056-7.
  • ^ “Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender couples urged to research honeymoon destinations”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  • ^ “The National LGB&T Partnership”. The National LGB&T Partnership. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  • ^ “Green Party LGBT Group Website”. Lgbtiq-greens.greenparty.org.uk. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  • ^ “EQUALITY FOR ALL” (PDF). Green Party of England and Wales. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  • ^ Duffy, Nick (1 May 2015). “Green Party wants every teacher to be trained to teach LGBTIQ issues”. PinkNews. Retrieved 3 May2015.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b “LGBTQQIAAP – ‘Alphabet Soup 101. PugetSoundOff.org. Archived from the original on October 2014. Retrieved 6 October2014.
  • ^ DeMarco, Linda; Bruni, Sylvain (18 July 2012) [1st pub. 18 May 2012]. “No More Alphabet Soup”. The Huffington Post. 1527958. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015.
  • ^ Brown, Catrina; Augusta-Scott, Tod (2006). Narrative Therapy: Making Meaning, Making Lives. Sage Publications Inc. ISBN 978-1-4129-0988-4.
  • ^ “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, Asexual Resource Center”. University of California, Davis. September 21, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
  • ^ Lebaron, Sarah; Pecsenye, Jessica; Roland, Becerra; Skindzier, Jon (2005). Oberlin College: Oberlin, Ohio. College Prowler, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59658-092-3.
  • ^ Chen, Edith Wen-Chu; Omatsu, Glenn (2006). Teaching about Asian Pacific Americans: Effective Activities, Strategies, and Assignments for Classrooms and Communities (Critical Perspectives on Asian Pacific Americans). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-5338-5.
  • ^ Babb, Florence E. (2001). After Revolution: Mapping Gender and Cultural Politics in Neoliberal Nicaragua. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-70900-3.
  • ^ Padilla, Yolanda C. (2003). Gay and Lesbian Rights Organizing: Community-based Strategies. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-275-9.
  • ^ Swigonski, Mary E.; Mama, Robin S.; Ward, Kelly; Shepard, Matthew (2001). From Hate Crimes to Human Rights: A Tribute to Matthew Shepard. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-257-5.
  • ^ Becker, Ron (2006). “Gay-Themed Television and the Slumpy Class: The Affordable, Multicultural Politics of the Gay Nineties”. Television & New Media. 7 (2): 184–215. doi:10.1177/1527476403255830. ISSN 1527-4764.
  • ^ DeTurk, Sara (2011). “Allies in Action: The Communicative Experiences of People Who Challenge Social Injustice on Behalf of Others”. Communication Quarterly. 59 (5): 569–590. doi:10.1080/01463373.2011.614209. ISSN 0146-3373.
  • ^ O’Rourke, P. J. (2001). Peace Kills: America’s Fun New Imperialism. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4198-9.
  • ^ Gurjar, Kaumudi. “Maiden stage act by city’s LGBT face gets censor’s chop”. punemirror.in. Pune Mirror. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  • ^ McCusker, Ros. “Gay Leeds — Your comprehensive guide to all things gay in Leeds”. gayleeds.com. Archived from the originalon 9 January 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  • ^ Kelly, Morgan. “Adding ‘allies’ to LGBT acronym sparks controversy”. iowastatedaily.com. Iowa State Daily. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  • ^ Richard, Katherine. “Column: “A” stands for asexuals and not allies”. loyolamaroon.com. The Maroon. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2014. That “A” is not for allies[,] [t]hat “A” is for asexuals. […] Much like bisexuality, asexuality suffers from erasure.
  • ^ “Reaching into the QUILTBAG: The Evolving World of Queer Speculative Fiction”. Apex Magazine. 2012-03-06. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  • ^ University, La Trobe. “What does LGBTIQA+ mean”. http://www.latrobe.edu.au. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  • ^ “Government of Canada initiatives to support LGBTQ2 communities and promote diversity and inclusion”. JUSTIN TRUDEAU, PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  • ^ “Rainbow Refugee”. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  • ^ “LGBT2Q+”. http://www.vch.ca.
  • ^ Szklarski, Cassandra (2016-07-02). “Is it time to drop LGBTQ’s ‘infinitely expanding alphabet’ for something simpler? | CBC News”. CBC. CBC. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  • ^ Ryan, Hugh (10 January 2014). “What Does Trans* Mean, and Where Did It Come From?. Slate. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  • ^ “Glossary of Transgender Terms”. Vaden Health Center Stanford University. 14 February 2014. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  • ^ Bohan, Janis S. (1996). Psychology and Sexual Orientation: Coming to Terms. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91514-4.
  • ^ Dreger, Alice (4 May 2015). “Reasons to Add and Reasons NOT to Add “I” (Intersex) to LGBT in Healthcare” (PDF). Association of American Medical Colleges. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  • ^ Makadon, Harvey J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Potter, Jennifer; Goldhammer, Hilary (2008). The Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health. ACP Press. ISBN 978-1-930513-95-2.
  • ^ “Yogyakarta Principles in Action, Activist’s Guide”. Ypinaction.org. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
  • ^ Koyama, Emi. “Adding the “I”: Does Intersex Belong in the LGBT Movement?”. Intersex Initiative. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  • ^ “Intersex for allies”. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  • ^ OII releases new resource on intersex issues Archived 2014-06-06 at the Wayback Machine, Intersex for allies and Making services intersex inclusive by Organisation Intersex International Australia, via Gay News Network, 2 June 2014.
  • ^ Kaggwa, Julius (September 19, 2016). “I’m an intersex Ugandan – life has never felt more dangerous”. The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F.L. (January 1990). “Will Prenatal Hormone Treatment Prevent Homosexuality?”. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 1 (4): 279–283. doi:10.1089/cap.1990.1.279. ISSN 1044-5463. human studies of the effects of altering the prenatal hormonal milieu by the administration of exogenous hormones lend support to a prenatal hormone theory that implicates both androgens and estrogens in the development of gender preference … it is likely that prenatal hormone variations may be only one among several factors influencing the development of sexual orientation
  • ^ Jump up to: a b Dreger, Alice; Feder, Ellen K; Tamar-Mattis, Anne (29 June 2010), Preventing Homosexuality (and Uppity Women) in the Womb?, The Hastings Center Bioethics Forum, retrieved 18 May2016
  • ^ “New publication “Intersex: Stories and Statistics from Australia. Organisation Intersex International Australia. February 3, 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
  • ^ Jones, Tiffany; Hart, Bonnie; Carpenter, Morgan; Ansara, Gavi; Leonard, William; Lucke, Jayne (2016). Intersex: Stories and Statistics from Australia (PDF). Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers. ISBN 978-1-78374-208-0. Archived from the original(PDF) on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  • ^ “Free & Equal Campaign Fact Sheet: Intersex” (PDF). United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  • ^ Children’s right to physical integrity, Council of EuropeParliamentary Assembly, Report Doc. 13297, 6 September 2013.
  • ^ “Trans? Intersex? Explained!”. Inter/Act. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
  • ^ “Basic differences between intersex and trans”. Organisation Intersex International Australia. 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
  • ^ Cabral Grinspan, Mauro (October 25, 2015), The marks on our bodies, Intersex Day
  • ^ Klesse, Christian (2007). The Spectre of Promiscuity: Gay Male and Bisexual Non-Monogamies and Polyamories. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-4906-9.[clarification needed][better source needed]
  • ^ Finnegan, Dana G.; McNally, Emily B. (2002). Counseling Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Substance Abusers: Dual Identities. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-925-3.
  • ^ Wilcox, Melissa M. (2003). Coming Out in Christianity: Religion, Identity, and Community. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21619-9.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b c Mohr, Richard D. (1988). Gays/Justice: A Study of Ethics, Society, and Law. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-06735-5. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Atkins, Dawn (1998). Looking Queer: Body Image and Identity in Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay, and Transgender Communities. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-0-7890-0463-5.
  • ^ Blasius, Mark (1994). Gay and Lesbian Politics: Sexuality and the Emergence of a New Ethic. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-56639-173-3.
  • ^ Tatchell, Peter (24 June 2009). “LGB – but why T?”. mother-ship.com. Mothership Blog. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2015. To try and separate the LGB from the T, and from women, is political madness. Queers are, like transgender people, gender deviant. We don’t conform to traditional heterosexist assumptions of male and female behaviour, in that we have sexual and emotional relationships with the same sex. We should celebrate our discordance with mainstream straight norms. The right to be different is a fundamental human right. The idea that we should conform to straight expectations is demeaning and insulting.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Sycamore, Matt Bernstein (2005). That’s Revolting!: Queer Strategies for Resisting Assimilation. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 978-1-932360-56-1. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b c d Carlsson, Chris (2005). The Political Edge. City Lights Books. ISBN 978-1-931404-05-1. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
  • ^ Leondar-Wright, Betsy (2005). Class Matters: Cross-Class Alliance Building for Middle-Class Activists. New Society Publishers. ISBN 978-0-86571-523-3.
  • ^ “Anti-Gay”. Marksimpson.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
  • ^ Julie Bindel (2 July 2014). “Viewpoint: Should gay men and lesbians be bracketed together?”. BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  • ^ Glover, Katie (2015-09-10). “Why it’s time to take the T out of LGBT”. The Independent. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  • ^ McCloy, Spencer (2018-07-27). “Why the LGBT Alliance Could Be on the Brink of Schism”. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  • ^ “Why it’s time to remove the T from LGBT”. Metro News. 2015-04-06. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  • ^ “LGBT Groups Respond to Petition Asking to ‘Drop the T. http://www.advocate.com. 6 November 2015.
  • ^ “Signatures for ‘Drop The T’ counter-petition surpass original – PinkNews · PinkNews”. http://www.pinknews.co.uk. 2015-11-12.
  • ^ Nast, Condé. “Why More Than 1,000 People Have Signed a Petition to Drop the “T” From LGBT”. Teen Vogue.
  • ^ Beyer, Dana; Director, ContributorExecutive; Maryl, Gender Rights (12 November 2015). “Gay Transphobia, 2015 Style”. HuffPost.
  • ^ Jump up to: a b c Armstrong, Elizabeth A. (2002). Forging Gay Identities: Organizing Sexuality in San Francisco, 1950–1994. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-02694-7. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
  • ^ Halpin, Mikki (2004). It’s Your World—If You Don’t Like It, Change It: Activism for Teenagers. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-689-87448-2.
  • ^ Rimmerman, Craig A.; Wald, Kenneth D.; Wilcox, Clyde (2006). The Politics of Gay Rights. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-1-4129-0988-4.
  • ^ “Welcome to the Bradford University Minority Sexual and Gender Identity Site!”. Bradford Uni MSGI Society. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-09.
  • ^ “GSRM – Gender, Sexual, and Romantic Minorities”. acronymfinder.com. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  • ^ Diversities’ May Enrich ‘LGBTQIAP’ Alphabet Soup”. The Huffington Post. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  • ^ “LGBT? LGBTQ? Queer? QUILTBAG? GSM? GSRM?”. queerumich.com. University of Michigan (on Tumblr). Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  • ^ “Gender and Sexual Minority Students (LGBTIQA)”. University of Derby. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  • ^ Organisation proposes replacing the ‘limiting’ term LGBT with ‘more inclusive’ GSD, February 25, 2013
  • ^ Gender And Sexual Diversities,’ Or GSD, Should Replace ‘LGBT,’ Say London Therapists”. The Huffington Post. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  • ^ “Pride on the prowl”. Dalhousie News. Retrieved 6 October2014.
  • ^ Alexander, Rashada; Parker, Karen; Schwetz, Tara (October 2015). “Sexual and Gender Minority Health Research at the National Institutes of Health”. LGBT Health. 3 (1): 7–10. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2015.0107. ISSN 2325-8292. PMID 26789398.
  • ^ Park, Andrew (June 2016). A Development Agenda for Sexual and Gender Minorities. The Williams Institute.
  • ^ Young, R M & Meyer, I H (2005) The Trouble with “MSM” and “WSW”: Erasure of the Sexual-Minority Person in Public Health Discourse American Journal of Public Health July 2005 Vol. 95 No. 7.
  • ^ Glick, M Muzyka, B C Salkin, L M Lurie, D (1994) Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis: a marker for immune deterioration and a predictor for the diagnosis of AIDS Journal of Periodontology 1994 65 p. 393–397.
  • Gay History: Council on Religion and the Homosexual

    The Council on Religion and the Homosexual was a San Francisco-based organization founded in 1964 for the purpose of joining homosexual activists and religious leaders.

    Clockwise from upper right:  Partygoers on their way to the Council on Religion and the Homosexual Mardi Gras Ball at San Francisco’s California Hall under the watchful eyes of the San Francisco police, January 1, 1965. Credit: San Francisco Examiner. Evander Smith photographed by the police outside California Hall (the police photographed everyone entering the building using sequentially numbered cards), January 1, 1965. Credit: Evander Smith—California Hall Papers (GLC 46), LGBTQI Center, San Francisco Public Library. Herb Donaldson photographed by the police outside California Hall, January 1, 1965.  Credit:  Courtesy Herbert Donaldson.

    The CRH was formed in 1964 by Glide Memorial Methodist Church, as well as Daughters of Bilitis founders Phyllis Lyon and Del Martin. It included representatives of Methodist, Episcopal, Lutheran, and United Church of Christ denominations.[1]

    In the early 1960s, as social change accelerated across the U.S., progressive clergymen increasingly took to the streets to minister to marginalized persons. The Rev. Ted McIlvenna, who worked for the Glide Urban Center, a private Methodist foundation in downtown San Francisco, witnessed the oppression and violence homosexuals faced, and to improve the situation sought a dialogue between clergy and homosexuals.

    With the support of the Methodist church, McIlvenna convened the Mill Valley Conference from May 31 to June 2, 1964, at which sixteen Methodist, Protestant Episcopal, United Church of Christ, and Lutheran clergymen met with thirteen leaders of the homosexual community.

    Following the initial meeting, the participants began plans for a new organization that would educate religious communities about gay and lesbian issues as well as enlist religious leaders to advocate for homosexual concerns. In July 1964, the participants, along with several other clergymen and homosexual activists, met and formed the Council on Religion and the Homosexual (CRH), which was incorporated in December of that year. The CRH was the first group in the U.S. to use the word “homosexual” in its name.[2]

    1965 Fundraiser

    On January 1, 1965, CRH held a costume party at California Hall at 625 Polk Street in San Francisco to raise money for the new organization. When the ministers informed the San Francisco Police Department of their intentions, the SFPD attempted to force the rented hall’s owners to cancel the event.[3] After a further meeting between the ministers and police, which resulted in an agreement not to interfere with the dance, guests arrived to find police snapping pictures of each of them as they entered and left, in a blatant attempt to intimidate.[3]

    When police demanded entry into the hall, three CRH-employed lawyers explained to them that under California law, the event was a private party and they could not enter unless they bought tickets. The lawyers were then arrested, as was a ticket-taker, on charges of obstructing an officer.[4]

    Seven of the ministers who were in attendance that night held a press conference the following morning, where they described the pre-event negotiations with police and accused them of “intimidation, broken promises and obvious hostility.”[3][4] One minister compared the SFPD to the Gestapo.[4]

    When the arrested lawyers came to trial, they were represented by the American Civil Liberties Union, which saw the lawyers’ arrest as an attempt to “intimidate attorneys who represent unpopular groups.”[3] Charges were dropped before the Defense had presented its case.[3]

    The incident and its aftermath are often regarded as the starting point of a more formally organized gay rights movement in San Francisco.[5]

    Candidate’s Night

    In 1965, CRH held an event where local politicians could be questioned about issues concerning gay and lesbian people, including police intimidation. The event marks the first known instance of “the gay vote” being sought, which led lesbian activist Barbara Gittings to say “It was remarkable. That was something that [gay] people in San Francisco were way ahead of the rest of the country in doing.”[1]

    References

       Licata, Salvatore J.; Robert P. Peterson (1982). Historical Perspectives on Homosexuality. Routledge. p. 175. ISBN 0-917724-27-5.

    1. ^ Squatriglia, Chuck; Heredia, Christopher; Writers, Chronicle Staff (2003-09-25). “Donald Stewart Lucas — gay rights pioneer / He helped build foundation for later activists”. SFGate. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
    2. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e D’Emilio, John (1998). Sexual politics, sexual communities: the making of a homosexual minority in the United States, 1940-1970. University of Chicago Press. pp. 193–195. ISBN 0-226-14267-1.
    3. ^ Jump up to: a b c Shilts, Randy (1982). The Mayor of Castro Street: The Life and Times of Harvey Milk. St. Martin’s Press. pp. 53–60. ISBN 0-312-56085-0.
    4. ^ Smith, Kristin (November 4, 2011). “Tears for Queers”. The Bold Italic. Archived from the original on August 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017-06-04

    The 17 Most Interesting Micronations

    The concept of a Micronation is a crazy one. Tiny nations, rarely recognized by anyone, they claim territorial independence but are mostly ignored by the rest of the world. Some are pretty legit, some are jokes, and some are scams, but they’re all interesting. These 17 Micronations all have individual claims to fame that make them intensely cool, in one way or another.

    17. Republic of Molossia

    Molossia is probably one of the most well known Micronations, with just the right blend of tongue-in-cheek humor and seriousness be wonderful and awesome. Molossia is based on two properties in Nevada and Pennsylvania, stretching over 58,000 acres owned by President Kevin Baugh (dictatorial). He issues their own money, they recognise other micronations, and if you give him enough warning, he’ll even give you a tour in full uniform. Molossia has its own alphabet, flag, and has been at war with East Germany since 1983, despite only being founded in 1999. Plus, they just added their own words to the Albanian national anthem. A little bonkers, and a lot of fun, how could you dislike the Republic of Molossia?

    16. The Kingdom of Lovely

    In 2005, the BBC ran a six-part documentary titled How to Start Your Own Country in which comedian Danny Wallace attempted to do exactly that — the Kingdom of Lovely is what resulted. He decided his flat would be appropriate, and gave Tony Blair a declaration of Independence, claiming it as a micronation. Partly internet based, Lovely now has more than 55,000 citizens scattered around the world, but Wallace’s attempt to gain recognition from the United Nations was harmed by him lacking any territories.

    15. The Duchy of Bohemia

    Whether the Duchy of Bohemia is actually a micronation or not is up for debate. Amongst the serious Micronationers, it’s generally frowned upon as they haven’t been doing anything really political, instead just selling off titles as a way to make a quick buck — rather than attempting to set themselves up as a legitimate mini-country. The reason I’ve included them is because their backstory is wonderful — they believe themselves to be the government in exile of Bohemia, which was absorbed into other Eastern European countries decades ago. They believe themselves to be descended of the Bohemian royal line, which is kinda badass.

    14. Gay and Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands

    In 2004, the Australian govenrment refused to acknowledge gay marriages, so as a move of symbolic protest a huge cluster of islands of the Northeast Coast of Queensland were declared the Gay and Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands, a Euro spending constitutional monarchy under the rule of King Gautier I. With a national anthem by Gloria Gaynor, anyone who was gay or lesbian was immediately granted citizenship — though the only economic activity on the islands was tourism, fishing, and selling stamps. Yes, it’s silly, and no it’s not meant to be taken seriously, but it was an interesting protest, and all done in fun.

    13. The Dominion of Melchizedek

    The so-called Dominion of Melchizedek presents the seedier side of micronations, a group of people involved in an immense swathe of financial fraud that brought the world powers down against them. Not internationally recognised, it was founded by a father and son con-artist team, who sold fake banking licenses. They facilitated global banking fraud, and were once called “one of the most diabolical international scams ever devised in recent years.” The leaders claim it’s an “ecclesiastical sovereignty,” like the Vatican City, but that’s more or less BS. They give banking licenses to illegitimate entities, who then rip off everyone else. Poor immigrants were also duped into buying citizenship papers they couldn’t afford, only to find they were useless. Nice people, all around.

    12. The Aerican Empire

    Their flag has a happy face on it. Do you really need any more indication that these people are amazing? They also take the micronation concept to absurdest ends, claiming diverse areas of land like a square kilometer of Australia, a house-sized area in Montreal, Canada, a colony on Mars, the northern hemisphere of Pluto, and an imaginary planet. For the first 10 years of existence, it didn’t even claim any land, but still managed to declare war on other micronations. They also have one of the most wonderful mottos around “The Empire exists to facilitate the evolution of a society wherein the Empire itself is no longer necessary.” It’s pretty much a state set up by a bunch of HGTTG nerds, which is amazing in and of itself.

    11. Nova Roma

    Take you standard SCA style reenactment geeks, have the obsess about Rome instead of the Middle Ages, and turn the wackiness up to 11, and you have the basics of Nova Roma. Founded in 1989 in order to “the restoration of classical Roman religion, culture, and virtues,” they’re a fully recognized non-profit with an educational and religious mission. They practice the Roman religion, do the festivities, wear the clothes, reenact battles — but I’m assuming skip the horrible torture, ethnic cleansing, and pedophilia. Well, I hope. The New Romans don’t really consider themselves a Micronation, but the rest of the Micronation community does, and they have made utterings about attempting to become a sovereign nation following in Roman traditions.

    10. Conch Republic

    The Conch Republic deserves to be on this list if only for having the funniest motto I’ve ever seen on a Micronation: “We Seceded Where Others Failed.” Well played, Conchers, well played. The Republic is completely tongue-and-cheek, and exists only to help drive tourism to the Florida Keys, but its founding was caused by real frustrations. When the US Border Patrol set up a checkpoint between Key West and the mainland, it frustrated a number of residents. Why were they being treated like foreign nationals entering the USA when they were citizens? So they decided they should make their own country. Yeah, they were removing the Michael, but were doing so with a point.

    9. The Other World Kingdom

    Finding pictures of the OWK that I could put on a marginally SFW website was tricky, because OWK exists only for kink. It’s a Femdom Micronation, one where men and women who like it when women have complete sexual and physical power over men get together. Fiercely matriarchal, male visitors are used as furniture, beaten, and generally tortured in a manner that some BDSM lovers are intimately familiar with. While apparently no actual sex occurs in this Czech manor (yeah, right), their claims as a Micronation allow them to get away with things that otherwise might be illegal — like detaining people against their will (kinda?) and physical abuse. Hey, whatever rubs your Buddha.

    8. The failed Libertarian states

    This entry isn’t just one nation, but instead is devoted to the number of attempted Libertarian micronations that have fallen apart for one reason or another. Hey, whenever your entire population thinks they’re John Galt, it’s hard to find someone to fix the sewage pump. There was Minerva on a small reef island near Fiji, which fell when Tonga invaded and took it over. There was New Utopia, founded by Howard Turney, which may or may not be an immense scam, depending on who you talk to. Then the Principality of Freedonia attempted to lease land in Somaliland, but public dissatisfaction led to rioting and the death of a Somali national, so the American students who founded it scarpered. There’s the more recent Seasteading Institute, which is attempting to build an ocean based new nation. I’m sure one day, one of them will succeed.

    7. The Empire of Atlantium

    Unlike many of the tongue in cheek attempts at micronationhood, the Empire of Atlantium went at it with a fierce devotion to the nation-state experiment, and wanted to found an extremely liberal, secular humanist utopia. Formed in Sydney in 1981, the nation has only 0.29 square miles to its name, but as primarily non-territorial state, they’re cool with that. I guess you could say it’s more a state of mind (oh god, why did I make that pun?) The man behind Atlantium is fiercely disliked by other Micronations, essentially for being an enormous flaming douchenozzle, but at least he’s trying.

    6. Grand Duchy of Westarctica

    For some reason, up until 2001 there was a huge wedge of Antarctica not claimed by any existing nation. All of the land south of 60° S and between 90° W and 150° W. was between the claims of Chile and New Zealand, and no one wanted it. So Travis McHenry claimed the so called Marie Byrd Land, and christened it the Grand Duchy of Westarctica. Of all the entries on this list, Westartica actually makes more sense than most. There was a huge swathe of land that nobody wanted, so why couldn’t they just claim it? It was completely unclaimed, so they grabbed it. I kinda hope they actually get some recognition, at least one of these guys deserves a win.

    5. The Kingdom of EnenKio

    Possibly the most widely known and condemned of the scummy, scamming micronations, the Kingdom of EnenKio claimed Wake Atoll of the Marshall Islands as their home base. These three little islands make up around 6.5 square kilometers of land, and after setting up this micronation in 1994, the founders immediately started setting up scam passports and diplomatic papers, which they sold to various unsavory types, despite them not actually having any weight in any nation on the planet. Both the United States and the Marshall Islands have released official communications condemning the actions of the EnenKions.

    4. The Hutt River Province Principality

    One of the longer running micronations, the Hutt River Province was founded in Australia in 1970. Based in the middle of fucking nowhere, around 500km north of Perth, this 18,000 hectare of farmland declared their secession after what they deemed to be overly draconian wheat production quotas. Unlike most other attempts on this list, the Hutt River Provinces almost succeeded. There’s an old Commonwealth law allowing for succession, and the Queen’s representative in Australia couldn’t be bothered fighting the five families who started the new country, so they just let them be. They don’t pay taxes, and mostly just keep to themselves, selling stamps and coins to make some extra cash on the side.

    3. The Independent Long Island

    Wait a second, someone actually wants Long Island? Huh, who would have thought? The ILI is an interesting case, because while they started by claiming the entire island as their own in 2007, on the grounds that it never changed hands to the Americans during the Revolutionary War. Or something like that. They could just be ornery, I’m not really sure. But in the scant handful of years that followed, it was entertaining as all hell to watch their dreams crumble into dust. Unlike some of the leaders on this list who kept their delusions going for years, the ILI first wanted their own country, then were happy being a separate state, and now have completely abandoned political aspirations and is now a “cultural project.”

    2. Freetown Christiania

    Within the Danish capital of Copenhagen sits a small, self-declared autonomous region known as Freetown Christiania. Founded in 1971 by, well, hippies, it’s run by, well, hippies. A bunch of squatters took over a former military barracks, and set up the mother of all communes. Think street music, lots of pot, vegetarian food, no violence, and no hard drugs. Christiana was most well known up until 2004 for its completely open marijuana sales. Anybody (including tourists) could just rock up to a stall and buy some hash. Unfortunately, 2004 saw the Danish government crack down on this, and the freeholding has been in a legal wreck ever since, with their very existence in question. Luckily, 2011 saw them open their doors to the public again after shutting last year.

    1. Sealand

    Far and away the most widely known and popular of the micronations, Sealand is based on a WWII sea fort in international waters off the coast of the UK. Occuppied by the Sealandian royal family since 1967, they have a strong internet presence, and appear to make much of their money by hosting internet gambling sites on their servers, as it’s perfectly legal in Sealand. They’ve also made quite a spin on tourism and selling of minor titles. While not technically recognised by any other nation, they’re on an island no one has jurisdiction of, so they generally just get left well enough alone. Strangely, Sealand received a major popularity boost thanks to the anime and manga series Hetalia: Axis Powers, which was about the personified embodiments of nations (don’t even ask) including the tiny Sealand.

    Reference

    Lost St Giles And Its Poverty Past

    On a weekday lunchtime the brightly coloured Central Saint Giles, to the east of Oxford Street and Tottenham Court Road, is buzzing with activity. Workers pour out of their offices into the shops and restaurants set around a covered courtyard forming the heart of this £450 million development. On either side are two buildings towering 15 storeys into the sky, home to Google and other companies. Designed by Italian architect Renzo Piano and completed in 2010, Central Saint Giles has quickly become a West End landmark. Passers-by can hardly miss the place thanks to its distinctive facades, covered with more than 130,000 bright green, orange, lime and yellow glazed tiles.

    Central Saint Giles

    With the Crossrail construction work taking place just around the corner, this area is going through an enormous amount of change. The new Tottenham Court Road station will open in time for the launch of the line that will bring fast travel across London from 2018.  Even Centre Point, one of London’s first skyscrapers and completed in 1966, is getting a makeover – apartments will replace what has in the past been occupied by offices. Once development around Tottenham Court Road is complete property speculators who invested in real estate several years ago will make a tidy profit.

    But as a result of all the change in the area, St Giles, which has a history stretching back more than a thousand years, has lost its identity. Indeed, St Giles High Street is a short stretch in central London with little more than a pub and a convenience store, set across from Central Saint Giles. Surrounded by modern developments and sandwiched between Covent Garden, Soho and Oxford Street, it’s one of the capital’s lost neighbourhoods.

    What’s probably oblivious to most that pass through this area on a daily basis is that it was once notorious for being one of London’s most unruly slums, where thieving and prostitution were rife. Given that streets have been built over and buildings demolished, traces of it have virtually disappeared. St Giles parish church (a religious institution since Saxon times), for example, is one of the few landmarks that would have been familiar to visitors to the area two hundred years ago.

    St Giles parish church

    When the clergyman Thomas Beames travelled here as part of research for his 1852 Rookeries of London book, he found thousands of destitute people living in “crumbling houses, flanked by courts and alleys…… in the very densest part of which the wretchedness of London takes shelter.” For him, it was like entering a different world:

    “You have scarce gone a hundred yards when you are in The Rookery. The change is marvellous: squalid children, haggard men, with long uncombed hair, in rags, most of them smoking, many speaking Irish; women without shoes or stockings – a babe perhaps at the breast, with a single garment, confined to the waist by a bit of string; wolfish looking dogs; decayed vegetables strewing the pavement; low public houses; linen hanging across the street to dry; the population stagnant in the midst of activity; lounging about in remnants of shooting jackets, leaning on the window frames, blocking up the courts and alleys; with young boys gathered round them, looking exhausted as though they had not been to bed.”

    Visiting the (now lost) George Street and Church Lane in St Giles, Beames found it hard to comprehend how up to 40 people could manage to sleep in a single room. Complete strangers slept next to each other, paying the landlord of the property a small amount for the privilege of a night’s stay. Inequality was rife in this district. Just a year before Beames published his book, statistics showed that there were 221.2 people per acre living in the district, compared to 16.2 and 5.3 per acre in Kensington and Hampstead respectively.

    The residents suffered from “the want of water, with which these courts are very inadequately supplied, even where it is turned on; and this takes place, in many instances, only twice a-week, though the companies have a plentiful supply at command; and few investments have turned out so profitable as those made in the shares of these different societies.” Conditions were terrible given that “many of the houses are so far below the level of the street, that, in wet weather, they are flooded; perhaps this is the only washing the wretched floorings get; the boards seem matted together by filth.” Beames described one shocking scene:

    “In a back alley, opening into Church street, was a den which looked more like a cow-house than a room for human beings – little, if any light, through the small diamond panes of the windows; and that, obstructed by the rags which replaced the broken glass-a door whose hinges were rotting, in which time had made many crevices, and yet seventeen human beings eat, drank, and slept there; the floor was damp and below the level of the court; the gutters overflowed; when it rained, the rain gushed in at the apertures.”

    Those living in the Rookery lived a precarious life, getting by on petty theft, begging and from selling goods on the streets. Beames said that “oranges, herrings, water-cresses, onions, seemed to be the most marketable articles.” Others worked as sweepers or stray luggage porters. Some inhabitants spent a month in a property, others a week and others still were “trampers”, moving on after a single night, carrying all their life’s possessions with them.

    Beames looked to history to understand how the Rookery in St Giles had grown to be as miserable as it was in his day, tracing it’s development from being a medieval leper hospital founded by Queen Matilda, wife of Henry II, in the 12th century. The marshes and open fields in which it was built provided a physical barrier separating it from London. While the hospital only survived until the mid 16th century, its presence in St Giles firmly establish the parish as a place for outcasts – a label that the district is only really now shaking off.  As early as the mid 17th century, church wardens reported “a great influx of poor people” as vagrants expelled from the city settled in the St Giles and sought its generous charitable relief.

    Although from early on there was a lot of poverty in the parish, it also attracted some wealthy residents from the late 16th century. But from Georgian affluence in 18th century, those that could afford it moved westwards to newly built squares and the area declined rapidly to the state that Beames described in his book. As I’ve written before, William Hogarth captured St Giles in a 1751 print called ‘Gin Lane’. In a busy scene set in front of the parish church, Hogarth pictured the poverty and despair of a community dependent on gin. The only businesses that thrived were those linked to the sale of the spirit.

    By the 19th century many campaigners were highlighting the plight of the inhabitants of St Giles.  Residents themselves wrote to the Times in 1849 to express their protest: “We live in muck and filth. We aint got no priviz no dust bins, no drains, no water-splies, and no drain or suer in the hole place.” But authorities’ were doing little – their solution was to simply bulldoze slums and replace with new roads, as was the case with New Oxford Street (completed in 1847). While the venture may have been a commercial success, no thought was given to where the 5,000 made homeless by the construction project would be housed. Beames was scathing:

    “If Rookeries are pulled down, you must build habitable dwellings for the population you have displaced, otherwise, you will not merely have typhus, but plague; some fearful pestilence worse than cholera or Irish fever, which will rage, as the periodical miasmata of other times were wont to do, numbering its victims by tens of thousands!”

    As slums were torn down over the course of the 19th century inhabitants were simply moved on to some of the other Rookeries in London. Following in the footsteps of Thomas Beames and his 1852, I’ll be visiting five more of these districts in the coming weeks and will see that St Giles is by now means an isolated case.

    Map of the area in 1794. Church Lane and others are now lost following modern development

    Reference